|Cultural origins||Early 1900s, United States|
|2022 in Latin music|
Latin music (Portuguese and Spanish: música latina) is a term used by the music industry as a catch-all arbitrary category for various styles of music from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, and the United States inspired by older Latin American, Spanish and Portuguese music genres, as well as music that is sung in the Spanish and/or Portuguese language.
Terminology and categorizations
Because the majority of Latino immigrants living in New York City in the 1950s were of Puerto Rican or Cuban descent, "Latin music" had been stereotyped as music simply originating from the Spanish Caribbean. The popularization of bossa nova and Herb Alpert's Mexican-influenced sounds in the 1960s did little to change the perceived image of Latin music. Since then, the music industry classifies all music sung in Spanish or Portuguese as Latin music, including musics from Spain and Portugal.
Following protests from Latinos in New York, a category for Latin music was created by National Recording Academy (NARAS) for the Grammy Awards titled Best Latin Recording in 1975. Enrique Fernandez wrote on Billboard that the single category for Latin music meant that all Latin music genres had to compete with each other despite the distinct sounds of the genre. He also noted that the accolade was mostly given to performers of tropical music. Eight years later, the organization debuted three new categories for Latin music: Best Latin Pop Performance, Best Mexican/Mexican-American Performance, and Best Tropical Latin Performance. Latin pop is a catch-all for any pop music sung in Spanish, while Mexican/Mexican-American (also to referred to as Regional Mexican) is based any musical style originating from Mexico or influences by its immigrants in the United States including Tejano, and tropical music focuses any music from the Spanish Caribbean.
In 1997, NARAS established the Latin Recording Academy (LARAS) in an effort to expand its operations in both Latin America and Spain. In September 2000, LARAS launched the Latin Grammy Awards, a separate award ceremony from the Grammy Awards, which organizers stated that the Latin music universe was too large to fit on the latter awards. Michael Greene, former head of NARAS, said that the process of creating the Latin Grammy Awards was complicated due to the diverse Latin musical styles, noting that the only thing they had in common was language. As a result, the Latin Grammy Awards are presented to records performed in Spanish or Portuguese, while the organization focuses on music from Latin America, Spain, and Portugal.
Since the late 1990s, the United States has had a substantially rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". The music industry in the United States started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Under this definition, Spanish sung in any genre is categorized as "Latin". In turn, this has also led to artists from Spain being labelled as "Latin" as they sing in the same language.
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the United States. Billboard however considers an artist to be "Latin" if they perform in Spanish or Portuguese. The RIAA initiated the "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" ("The Gold and Platinum Awards" in Spanish) in 2000 to certify sales of Latin music albums and singles under a different threshold than its standard certifications. Billboard divides its Latin music charts into three subcategories: Latin pop, Regional Mexican, and tropical. A fourth subcategory was eventually added in the mid 2000s to address the rise of Latin urban music genres such as Latin hip hop and reggaeton.
The term "Latin music" originated from the United States due to the growing influence of Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat (1940s) and Tito Puente (1950s) and then accelerating in later decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration." Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. Pérez Prado is the composer of such famous pieces as "Mambo No. 5" and "Mambo No. 8". At the height of the mambo movement in 1955, Pérez hit the American charts at number one with a cha-cha-chá version of "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White". El manisero, known in English as The Peanut Vendor, is a Cuban son-pregón composed by Moisés Simons. Together with "Guantanamera", it is arguably the most famous piece of music created by a Cuban musician. "The Peanut Vendor" has been recorded more than 160 times, sold over a million copies of the sheet music, and was the first million-selling 78 rpm single of Cuban music.
The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and later became an international trend, led especially by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Late 60s, boogaloo boom was coming, and boogaloo musicians such as Pérez Prado, Tito Rodríguez and Tito Puente released boogaloo singles and albums. Most of the other groups were young musicians such as Pucho & His Latin Soul Brothers and Joe Bataan.
Early examples of boogaloo were 1966 music by Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz. The biggest boogaloo hit of the '60s was "Bang Bang" by the Joe Cuba Sextet in 1966. Hits by other groups included Johnny Colón's "Boogaloo Blues", Pete Rodríguez's "I Like It like That"(1967).
Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, and Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, and Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries (Latin America, Spain, and Portugal) together. Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world".
In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, and José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, and its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics. This became known as the salsa romantica era.
In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano music became the most prominent genre and became one of the fastest-growing music genres in the United States. On January 10, 1990, EMI Latin bought Bob Grever's Cara Records, beginning the golden age of Tejano music. Tejano music's growth exploded, as journalist Ramiro Burr put it as "a stubborn brushfire spread over the horizon", the genre converted radio stations into playing Tejano music. This garnered the attention of record labels across the United States who were eager to expand their current rosters. In 1991, Warner Nashville created Warner Discos specifically for Tejano artists crossing over into country music while Arista Nashville erected Artista Texas with the same objective. Other labels such as PolyGram Latino and WEA Latina began deliberations on opening operations to exclusively sign Tejano acts, while Fonovisa began signing Tejano musicians. These incentives helped expanded performers' fanbases beyond Texas and the southwest, it also brought the genre to territories unfamiliar with the genre. The golden age is generally considered by journalists to have ended on March 31, 1995, when Selena was shot and killed. Tejano music posted a five consecutive year sales and concert attendance record from 1990 to 1995. Mario Tarradell of The Dallas Morning News wrote that the singles from Amor Prohibido elevated Selena to success on Latin radio whose promoters had not previously taken the singer seriously. By 1994, Tejano acts were effortless selling 100,000 units of their albums, while La Mafia and Selena were the two most commercially successful Tejano artists. Selena's music led the genre's 1990s revival and made it marketable for the first time. Tejano music is believed by Jose Behar to have hit Mexico "like an atomic bomb" by 1994. While Tejano singer Emilio Navaira decided on a crossover into American country music, preparations began for Selena's crossover into American pop music. The singer was fatally wounded after a confrontation with Yolanda Saldivar, a friend and former associate of the singer's fan club, and boutiques. Her unfinished crossover album, Dreaming of You (1995), became the first mostly-Spanish album to debut and peak at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart. Tejano music suffered and its popularity waned following Selena's death, and record labels began abandoning their Tejano artists while radio stations in the United States switched from Tejano to Regional Mexican music.
By the mid-1990s, Tejano music was replaced by Latin pop as the dominant Latin music genre in the United States. Gloria and her husband Emilio Estefan are considered to have "open[ed] the door" to a number of artists throughout the 1990s decade. Their production is believed to have provided Mexican singer Thalía with her first platinum award for En éxtasis (1995).[verification needed] Colombian pop rock singer Shakira released her international debut album Pies Descalzos (1995). She worked closely with the Estefans for her album Dónde Están Los Ladrones? (1998), which topped the US Billboard Top Latin Albums chart. The album's success and production by the Estefans, provided Shakira with a lucrative formula that she used for her English-language crossover which was released in 2001. Enrique Iglesias, the son of Spanish singer-songwriter Julio Iglesias, released two albums; his self-titled album released in 1995, and Vivir (1997), that concentrated on pop ballads and rhythms. With improvements in his songwriting on Vivir, Enrique was able to successfully convey "his innermost thoughts and feelings". Critics found Vivir to be superior to Enrique's contemporaries and reportedly sold over five million copies in Asia, Europe, and South and Central America within a week of its release, the first Latin album to do so. Ricky Martin's hip-shaking dance moves were compared to those of Elvis Presley among American music critics seeking to find an artist who resembled Martin's dance moves and their effect on the United States pop market. In 1998, music and ticket sales of Martin grossed $106 million, which was the equivalent of the total exports of Puerto Rico to Mexico in 1996. His 1998 album Vuelve contained "La Copa de la Vida", which became the official 1998 FIFA World Cup song. This provided Martin with worldwide visibility, though it was his performance of the recording at the 1999 Grammy Awards that brought Martin attention from American audiences. In 1999, he released his self-titled album which contained the English-language number-one song "Livin' la Vida Loca". Following the commercial and critical success of Selena (1997), Jennifer Lopez catapulted into fame after playing the title role. Lopez entered the music market following a string of films and released her debut recording On the 6 (1999), which she described as a Latin soul album.
Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance (1991), a collection of classics covered by the artist. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, and Nek successfully crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs. In the tropical music field, merengue, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity.
In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Hector 'El Father' Tego Calderon, Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, and Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata mus esic became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field.
By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, reggaeton, urbano, banda and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U.S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain. Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, and Anuel AA. In May 2013, Christina Aguilera appeared on Mexican singer Alejandro Fernández's cover of "Hoy Tengo Ganas de Ti" from his album Confidencias. Latin music accounted for 9.4 percent of all album listening in the U.S. in 2018, surpassing the Country music genre for the first time.
The origins of Latin Music in the United States dates back to the 1930s with Rhumba. Rhumba was prominent with Cuban style ballroom dancing in the 1930s, but was not mainstream. It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that Latin Music started to become intertwined with American culture. Latin music is starting to become mainstream in the US as Latin artists are teaming up with English speaking artists. In 2017, a song named, "Despacito" by Justin Bieber, Luis Fonsi, and Daddy Yankee had 4.5 billion views on YouTube. In 2017, six of the top ten viewed songs on YouTube feature Latin Artists. The song was the beginning for the boom of Latin music in the United States. Some of the most popular forms of Latin music are Salsa, Bachata, Regional Mexican music, Tango, Merengue, Latin Pop, and Reggaeton. Today, reggaeton is a very popular style that combines reggae and American hip-hop. Some of the most popular artists today are Daddy Yankee, Melymel, J Balvin and Nicky Jam. In 2018, Latin music came second in total video streams with 21.8% market share. Latin music listeners tend to be younger, more tech savvy, 95% of Latin music coming from streaming suggests, according to Jeff Benjamin.
Immigration and globalization has caused Latin music to skyrocket in popularity. Historically, the United States and Britain have had control over the music industry but the internet and technology has allowed for diversification and local music to become more prominent throughout the world. The technological advancements have allowed streaming services to flourish that offer a wide variety of music without having to pay for each individual song/album. The increase in Latin artists working with English speaking American artists has caused songs such as Ritmo by An American band, The Black Eyed Peas, and J Balvin, a Latin singer, to be number one on the billboard's Hot Latin Songs chart. This increase has caused Latin music sales revenue in the US to rise from 176 million to 413 million dollars in 2018. From 2016 to 2017, the amount of latin songs on the billboard hot 100 increased from four to 19. Latin music surpassed Country and EDM in terms of album sales in the US in 2018. This trend has caused pop music in the US to adopt certain styles from Latin music. This has some experts questioning whether less popular Latin genres will become more niche in the future as record labels focus on products in industries with a greater concentration of money.
Numerous computer science and music experts have reported a common error on streaming services such as Spotify. Overlooking mainstay artists in catch-all genre terms such as Latin music, potentially causing a categorical homogenization of musical styles; incorrectly miscategorizing musicians and songs from heritage styles, such as Norteño, New Mexico music, Duranguense, and Tejano music, leading to underperformance of these styles on their platforms.
- Billboard Top Latin Albums
- Hot Latin Songs
- List of best-selling Latin albums
- Category:Latin music by year
- ^ Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin beat: The Rhythms and Roots of Latin music From Bossa Nova to Salsa and Beyond (1. Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-306-81018-3. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
Including Spain, there are twenty-two predominantly Spanish-speaking countries, and there are many more styles of Latin music.
- ^ a b Stavans, llan (2014). Latin music: musicians, genres, and themes. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. xviii, 838. ISBN 978-0-313-34396-4. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- ^ a b Lawrence, Larry; Wright, Tom (January 26, 1985). "¡Viva Latino!". Billboard. Vol. 97, no. 4. pp. 53, 62. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- ^ a b Flores, Juan; Rosaldo, Renato (2007). A Companion to Latina/o Studies. Oxford: Blackwell Pub. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-470-65826-0. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- ^ Llewellyn, Howell (November 25, 1995). "ShowMarket to Focus on Development of Latin Music". Billboard. Vol. 107, no. 47. p. 72. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- ^ Arenas, Fernando (2011). Lusophone Africa: Beyond Independence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8166-6983-7. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- ^ Stavans, Ilan; Augenbraum, Harold (2005). Encyclopedia Latina : history, culture, and society in the United States. Danbury, CT: Grolier Academic Reference. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-7172-5818-5.
The term Latin music identifies a wide range of genres and styles generated in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula
- ^ "Julio Iglesias receives world record certificate in Beijing". Guinness World Record. April 2, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- ^ Gebesmair, Andreas (2001). Global Repertoires : Popular Music Within and Beyond the Transnational Music Industry. Taylor and Francis. p. 63. ISBN 9781138275201. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- ^ Fernandez, Enrique (June 18, 1983). "NARAS Takes A Welcome Step". Billboard. p. 73. ISSN 0006-2510.
- ^ Fernandez, Enrique (November 1, 1986). "Latin Notas". Billboard. Vol. 98, no. 44. p. 40A. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- ^ Lannert 1997.
- ^ Valdes-Rodriguez, Alisa (September 12, 2000). "One Little Word, Yet It Means So Much". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- ^ Fernandez, Enrique (March 5, 2000). "After Birthing Pains, Latin Grammys Should Grow Strong". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- ^ Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo (2008). Latinos: Remaking America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25827-3.
- ^ González, Juan (2011). Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311928-9.
- ^ Avant-Mier, Roberto (2010). Rock the Nation: Latin/o Identities and the Latin Rock Diaspora. Continuum Publishing Corporation.
- ^ Edwards, Bob (September 13, 2000). "Profile: Latin Grammys at the Staples Center in Los Angeles". NPR. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- ^ Barkley, Elizabeth F. (2007). Crossroads: the Multicultural Roots of America's Popular Music (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-13-193073-5.
The U.S. record industry defines Latin music as simply any release with lyrics that are mostly in Spanish.
- ^ Valdes-Rodriguez, Alisa (December 26, 1999). "The Loud and Quiet Explosions". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (April 18, 2019). "What 'Latin' Means Now, In Music and Beyond". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- ^ "RIAA 2015 Year-End Latin Sales & Shipments Data Report". RIAA. 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (January 5, 2012). "Latin Sales Down Slightly in 2011, Digital Latin Sales Up". Billboard. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- ^ "Rosalia's Best New Artist Nomination: What It Means To Latin Music". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. November 20, 2019. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
Note: we are considering Rosalía an artist who falls into the “Latin” category because she performs in Spanish or Portuguese
- ^ "RIAA Updates Latin Gold & Platinum Program". RIAA. December 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- ^ "Billboard's Latin Charts Switch To SoundScan". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. July 10, 1993. pp. 4, 71. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (May 21, 2005). "New Latin Charts Bow". Billboard. Vol. 117, no. 21. Nielsen Business Media. p. 10. ISSN 0006-2510.
- ^ Furia, Philip (2004). Skylark: The Life and Times of Johnny Mercer. Macmillan. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-4668-1923-8.
- ^ O'Neil, Brian (2005). "Carmen Miranda: The High Price of Fame and Bananas". In Ruiz, Vicki L.; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia (eds.). Latina Legacies. Oxford University Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-19-515398-9.
the power that Hollywood films could exert in the two-pronged campaign to win the hearts and minds of Latin Americans and to convince Americans of the benefits of Pan-American friendship
- ^ "Pérez Prado Songs, Albums, Reviews, Bio & More". AllMusic. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- ^ Giro, Radamés 2007. Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba. La Habana. vol 4, p147
- ^ Listed in Díaz Ayala, Cristóbal 1988. Si te quieres por el pico divertir: historia del pregón musical latinoamericano. Cubanacan, San Juan P.R. p317–322. [list fairly complete up to 1988]
- ^ Taffet, Jeffrey; Watcher, Dustin (2011). Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538568-7. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- ^ Candelaria 2004b, p. 690.
- ^ Olsen, Dale; Sheehy, Daniel E. (2008). The Garland handbook of Latin American music (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-415-96101-1. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- ^ Ruhlmann, William (2003). "Carlos Santana: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- ^ Tito Puente biography. BookRags.com. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- ^ Later This song was used on soundtrack of the 2014 film Chef
- ^ Bernstein, Arthur; Sekine, Naoki; Weismann, Dick (2013). The Global Music Industry Three Perspectives. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-135-92248-1. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- ^ Salaverri, Fernando (November 3, 1979). "Spain Establishing the Latin European Link". Billboard. Vol. 91, no. 44. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- ^ Burr 1991, p. 61.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (November 29, 2003). "The Prince's 40-Year Reign: A Billboard Q&A". Billboard. Vol. 115, no. 48. p. 28.
- ^ Pietrobruno, Sheenagh (2006). Salsa and Its Transnational Moves. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-6058-9.
- ^ a b c Burr 1999, p. 15.
- ^ Patoski 1996, p. 84.
- ^ a b Lannert & Burr 1996, pp. 38, 40–46.
- ^ a b c d Burr 1994, p. 30.
- ^ Maciel, Ortiz & Herrera-Sobek 2000, p. 23.
- ^ Lannert & Burr 1996, p. 38.
- ^ a b Patoski 2020.
- ^ Saldana 2015.
- ^ Tarradell 1995.
- ^ Untiedt 2013, p. 127.
- ^ Schone 1995.
- ^ Shaw 2005, p. 50.
- ^ San Miguel 2002, p. 110.
- ^ Burr 1999, p. 43.
- ^ Patoski 1996, pp. 160–161.
- ^ Lannert 1995.
- ^ San Miguel 2002a.
- ^ Patoski 2000.
- ^ Candelaria 2004b, p. 575.
- ^ Krohn 2008, p. 35.
- ^ Novas 2007, p. 326.
- ^ Furman & Furman 2000, p. 84.
- ^ Furman & Furman 2000, pp. 84–85.
- ^ Negrón-Muntaner 2004, p. 251.
- ^ Negrón-Muntaner 2004, p. 267.
- ^ Candelaria 2004b, p. 529.
- ^ Novas 2007, p. 324.
- ^ Novas 2007, p. 161.
- ^ Novas 2007, p. 325.
- ^ Holston, Mark (September 1, 1995). "Ageless Romance with Bolero". Américas. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- ^ Obejas, Achy (April 4, 1999). "Italian Artists Conquer Latin Music Charts". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Company. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- ^ Rodriguez, Nelson (September 1, 1998). "A look at contemporary Merengue. – Free Online Library". Latin Beat Magazine. thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- ^ Resto-Montero, Gabriela (January 25, 2016). "The Unstoppable Rise of Reggaeton". Fusion. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (August 15, 2009). "Tropical Paradise". Billboard. Vol. 121, no. 32. p. 31. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- ^ Henderson, Alex. "Me Cambiaste la Vida – Rogelio Martinez". AllMusic. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- ^ Cobo, Leila (September 10, 2014). "Latin Noise: We Want Our Ballads". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- ^ Melendez, Angel (April 25, 2017). "Why Are Spanish Songs More Popular on YouTube? Billboard's Leila Cobo Knows". Miami New Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- ^ "Trap's Latin American Takeover". The Fader. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- ^ "Hoy Tengo Ganas De Ti [feat. Christina Aguilera]: Alejandro Fernández". Amazon.es (Spain). May 14, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
- ^ a b Nahmad, Erica (February 12, 2019). "Sonido: Understanding the Rise of Latin Music in the US". BeLatina. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "From reggaeton to riches: inside Latin music's global takeover". MN2S. April 9, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ a b c Arbona-Ruiz, Marisa. "The 'Despacito' effect: The year Latino music broke the charts". NBC News. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ Quintana, Carlos. "What Are the Most Popular Latin Music Genres?". LiveAbout. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ a b Benjamin, Jeff. "Latin Music Is Now More Popular Than Country & EDM In America". Forbes. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ "Best music streaming services 2021: free streams to hi-res audio". whathifi. September 7, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ a b Leight, Elias (November 15, 2018). "Latin Music Is Reaching More Listeners Than Ever – But Who Is Represented?". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ "Spotify Pivots on Global Cultures Initiative, Alarming Music Industry". Rolling Stone. October 4, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- ^ Hepworth, Shelley (January 1, 2020). "Streaming spells the end of the 'ownership' era of music, but are we ready to let go?". The Guardian. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- ^ Lucero, Mario J. (January 3, 2020). "The problem with how the music streaming industry handles data". Quartz. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- ^ "Spotify and streaming services are breaking cultural music on a worldwide stage". RouteNote Blog. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- Burr, Ramiro (January 5, 1991). "Mexican Quartet Captures Top OTI Prize". Billboard.
- Burr, Ramiro (April 23, 1994). "Tejano". Billboard. Vol. 106, no. 17. pp. 30, 32, 34. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Burr, Ramiro (1999). The Billboard Guide to Tejano and Regional Mexican Music. Billboard books. ISBN 0-8230-7691-1.
- Candelaria, Cordelia (2004b). Candelaria, Cordelia; García, Peter J.; Aldama, Arturo J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture. Vol. 2. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33211-8.
- Furman, Elina; Furman, Leah (2000). Enrique Iglesias. New York, NY: St. Martin's Publishing Group. ISBN 1466810394. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- Krohn, Katherine E. (2008). Shakira. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-0822571599. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- Lannert, John (August 5, 1995). "Selena's Dreaming of You is Bittersweet Hit for Late EMI Star". Billboard. Vol. 107, no. 31. p. 1. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
- Lannert, John; Burr, Ramiro (August 17, 1996). "Regional Mexican Music". Billboard. Vol. 108, no. 33. pp. 38–46. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Lannert, John (June 21, 1997). "LARAS Formed To Expand Latin Work of NARAS". Billboard. Vol. 109, no. 25. pp. 6, 92–93. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Maciel, David; Ortiz, Isidro D.; Herrera-Sobek, Mar'a (2000). Chicano renaissance : contemporary cultural trends. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 330. ISBN 0816520216.
- Negrón-Muntaner, Frances (2004). Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture. NYU Press. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-8147-5878-6. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- Novas, Himilce (2007). Everything you need to know about Latino history (2008 ed.). New York: Plume. p. 432. ISBN 978-0452288898. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- Patoski, Joe Nick (1996). Selena: Como La Flor. Boston: Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-69378-2.
- Patoski, Joe Nick (May 2000). "Tuned Out". Texas Monthly. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- Patoski, Joe Nick (March 23, 2020). "A Timeline of Tejano Music". Cowboys & Indians. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
- Saldana, Hector (August 16, 2015). "Tejano music enjoyed a decade-long golden age". My San Antonio. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
- San Miguel, Guadalupe (2002). Tejano Proud. Texas A&M University Press. p. 192. ISBN 1585441880.
- San Miguel, Guadalupe (2002a). "When Tejano Ruled The Airways: The Rise and Fall of KQQK in Houston, Texas". NACCS Annual Conference Proceedings (PDF). Vol. 13. Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Retrieved March 9, 2015 – via SJSU ScholarWorks.
- Schone, Mark (April 20, 1995). "A Postmortem Star in death, Selena is a crossover success". Newsday. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Shaw, Lisa (2005). Pop Culture Latin America!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-504-7.
- Tarradell, Mario (April 1, 1995). "Singer soared beyond traditional limits on Tejano music". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- Untiedt, Kenneth L. (2013). Cowboys, Cops, Killers, and Ghosts: Legends and Lore in Texas. University of North Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-57441-532-2.
- Stavans, Ilan (2014). Latin music: musicians, genres, and themes. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34396-4.
- Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin Beat. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81018-3.
- "1992 International Buyer's Guide to Latin Music". Billboard. 1992. ISSN 1074-746X.
- What Is Latin Music? About.com
- Latin Music Genre Overview AllMusic
- Latin Music Billboard
- Latin Grammy
- Latin Music USA PBS
- Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame
- American Sabor
- Latin music
- Hispanic-influenced music in the Philippines