Logo since 2017
Screenshot of homepage on 14 November 2021
|Type of business||Subsidiary|
Type of site
|Online video platform|
|Founded||February 14, 2005; 17 years ago (2005-02-14)|
|Headquarters||901 Cherry Avenue|
San Bruno, California,
|Area served||Worldwide (excluding blocked countries)|
|Key people||Susan Wojcicki (CEO)|
Chad Hurley (advisor)
|Revenue||US$28.8 billion (2021)|
|Parent||Google LLC (2006–present)|
(see list of localized domain names)
|Users||2.6 billion (January 2021)|
|Launched||February 14, 2005; 17 years ago (2005-02-14)|
|Uploader holds copyright (standard license); Creative Commons can be selected.|
YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. It was launched on February 14, 2005, by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is owned by Google, and is the second most visited website, after Google Search. YouTube has more than 2.5 billion monthly users who collectively watch more than one billion hours of videos each day. As of May 2019[update], videos were being uploaded at a rate of more than 500 hours of content per minute.
In October 2006, 18 months after posting its first video and 10 months after its official launch, YouTube was bought by Google for $1.65 billion. Google's ownership of YouTube expanded the site's business model, expanding from generating revenue from advertisements alone, to offering paid content such as movies and exclusive content produced by YouTube. It also offers YouTube Premium, a paid subscription option for watching content without ads. YouTube also approved creators to participate in Google's AdSense program, which seeks to generate more revenue for both parties. YouTube reported revenue of $19.8 billion in 2020. In 2021, YouTube's annual advertising revenue increased to $28.8 billion.
Since its purchase by Google, YouTube has expanded beyond the core website into mobile apps, network television, and the ability to link with other platforms. Video categories on YouTube include music videos, video clips, news, short films, feature films, documentaries, audio recordings, movie trailers, teasers, live streams, vlogs, and more. Most content is generated by individuals, including collaborations between YouTubers and corporate sponsors. Established media corporations such as Disney, Paramount, and Warner Bros. Discovery have also created and expanded their corporate YouTube channels to advertise to a larger audience.
YouTube has had an unprecedented social impact, influencing popular culture, internet trends, and creating multimillionaire celebrities. Despite all its growth and success, YouTube has been widely criticized. Criticism of YouTube includes the website being used to facilitate the spread of misinformation, copyright issues, routine violations of its users' privacy, enabling censorship, and endangering child safety and wellbeing.
Founding and initial growth (2005–2006)
YouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. The trio were early employees of PayPal, which left them enriched after the company was bought by eBay. Hurley had studied design at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen remarked that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".
Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy when Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed by Justin Timberlake during the halftime show. Karim could not easily find video clips of the incident and the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site. Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. They created posts on Craigslist asking attractive women to upload videos of themselves to YouTube in exchange for a $100 reward. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video.
YouTube began as a venture capital–funded technology startup. Between November 2005 and April 2006, the company raised money from a variety of investors with Sequoia Capital, $11.5 million, and Artis Capital Management, $8 million, being the largest two. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. In February 2005, the company activated
www.youtube.com. The first video was uploaded April 23, 2005. Titled Me at the zoo, it shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo and can still be viewed on the site. In May, the company launched a public beta and by November, a Nike ad featuring Ronaldinho became the first video to reach one million total views. The site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. Clips at the time were limited to 100 megabytes, as little as 30 seconds of footage.
Contrary to popular belief, YouTube was not the first video-sharing site on the Internet; Vimeo was launched in November 2004, though that site remained a side project of its developers from CollegeHumor at the time and did not grow much, either. The week of YouTube's launch, NBC-Universal's Saturday Night Live ran a skit "Lazy Sunday" by The Lonely Island. Besides helping to bolster ratings and long-term viewership for Saturday Night Live, "Lazy Sunday"'s status as an early viral video helped establish YouTube as an important website. Unofficial uploads of the skit to YouTube drew in more than five million collective views by February 2006 before they were removed when NBCUniversal requested it two months later based on copyright concerns. Despite eventually being taken down, these duplicate uploads of the skit helped popularize YouTube's reach and led to the upload of more third-party content. The site grew rapidly and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.
The choice of the name
www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website,
www.utube.com. That site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube subsequently changed its website to
Broadcast Yourself era (2006–2013)
On October 9, 2006, Google announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock. The deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. Google's acquisition launched new newfound interest in video-sharing sites; IAC, which now owned Vimeo, focused on supporting the content creators to distinguish itself from YouTube. It is at this time YouTube issued the slogan "Broadcast Yourself".
The company experienced rapid growth. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. By 2010, the company had reached a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos, according to comScore. That year, the company simplified its interface in order to increase the time users would spend on the site. In 2011, more than three billion videos were being watched each day with 48 hours of new videos uploaded every minute. However, most of these views came from a relatively small number of videos; according to a software engineer at that time, 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site. That year, the company again changed its interface and at the same time, introduced a new logo with a darker shade of red. A subsequent interface change, designed to unify the experience across desktop, TV, and mobile, was rolled out in 2013. By that point, more than 100 hours were being uploaded every minute, a number that would increase to 300 hours by November 2014.
During this time, the company also went through some organizational changes. In October 2006, YouTube moved to a new office in San Bruno, California. Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as a chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company in October 2010.
YouTube's new CEO and going mainstream (2014–2018)
Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube in February 2014. In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 51,468 square metres (554,000 square feet) of space and can house up to 2,800 employees. YouTube officially launched the "polymer" redesign of its user interfaces based on Material Design language as its default, as well a redesigned logo that is built around the service's play button emblem in August 2017.
Through this period, YouTube tried several new ways to generate revenue beyond advertisements. In 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program for content providers to offer premium, subscription-based channels within the platform. This effort was discontinued in January 2018 and relaunched in June, with US$4.99 channel subscriptions. These channel subscriptions complemented the existing Super Chat ability, launched in 2017, which allows viewers to donate between $1 and $500 to have their comment highlighted. In 2014, YouTube announced a subscription service known as "Music Key," which bundled ad-free streaming of music content on YouTube with the existing Google Play Music service. The service continued to evolve in 2015, when YouTube announced YouTube Red, a new premium service that would offer ad-free access to all content on the platform (succeeding the Music Key service released the previous year), premium original series, and films produced by YouTube personalities, as well as background playback of content on mobile devices. YouTube also released YouTube Music, a third app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music content hosted on the YouTube platform.
The company also attempted to create products to appeal to specific kinds of viewers. YouTube released a mobile app known as YouTube Kids in 2015, designed to provide an experience optimized for children. It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate content, and parental control features. Also in 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented vertical and app for videos and live streaming, intended to compete with the Amazon.com-owned Twitch.
Consolidation and controversy (2019–present)
By February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube were watched every day, and 400 hours of video were uploaded every minute. Two years later, the uploads had risen to more than 500 hours per minute. During the COVID-19 pandemic, when most of the world was under stay-at-home orders, usage of services such as YouTube greatly increased. One data firm estimated that YouTube was accounting for 15% of all internet traffic, twice its pre-pandemic level. In response to EU officials requesting that such services reduce bandwidth as to make sure medical entities had sufficient bandwidth to share information, YouTube along with Netflix stated they would reduce streaming quality for at least thirty days as to cut bandwidth use of their services by 25% to comply with the EU's request. YouTube later announced that they would continue with this move worldwide: "We continue to work closely with governments and network operators around the globe to do our part to minimize stress on the system during this unprecedented situation."
Following a 2018 complaint alleging violations of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), the company was fined $170 million by the FTC for collecting personal information from minors under the age of 13. YouTube was also ordered to create systems to increase children's privacy. Following criticisms of its implementation of those systems, YouTube started treating all videos designated as "made for kids" as liable under COPPA on January 6, 2020. Joining the YouTube Kids app, the company created a supervised mode, designed more for tweens, in 2021. Additionally, in an effort to compete with TikTok, YouTube released YouTube Shorts, a short-form video platform.
During this period, YouTube entered disputes with other tech companies. For over a year, in 2018 and 2019, there was no YouTube app available for Amazon Fire products. In 2020, Roku removed the YouTube TV app from its streaming store after the two companies were unable to reach an agreement.
In 2022, YouTube launched an experiment where the company would show users who watched longer videos on TVs a long chain of short unskippable adverts, with a goal of consolidating all ads into the beginning of a video. Following immense public outrage over the unprecedented amount of unskippable ads, YouTube "ended" the experiment on September 19 of that year.
YouTube public dislike count removal (2021–present)
After testing earlier in 2021, YouTube removed public display of dislike counts on videos in November 2021, claiming the reason for the removal was, based on its internal research, that users often used the dislike feature as a form of cyberbullying and brigading. While some users praised the move as a way to discourage trolls, others felt that hiding dislikes would make it harder for viewers to recognize clickbait or unhelpful videos, and that other features already existed for creators to limit bullying. Some theorized the removal of dislikes was influenced by YouTube Rewind 2018, which was heavily panned and became the most-disliked video on the platform. YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim referred to the update as "a stupid idea", and that the real reason behind the change was "not a good one, and not one that will be publicly disclosed." He felt that the ability for users on a social platform to identify bad content was essential, saying: "The process works, and there's a name for it: the wisdom of the crowds. The process breaks when the platform interferes with it. Then, the platform invariably declines." Shortly after the announcement, software developer Dmitry Selivanov created Return YouTube Dislike, an open-source, third-party browser extension for Chrome and Firefox that allows users to see a video's number of dislikes. In a letter published on January 25, 2022, YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki acknowledged that removing public dislike counts was a controversial decision, but reiterated that she stands by this decision, claiming that "it reduced dislike attacks."
YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video codecs, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol. MPEG-4 Part 2 streams contained within 3GP containers are also provided for low bandwidth connections. By January 2019, YouTube had begun rolling out videos in AV1 format. In 2021 it was reported that the company was considering requiring AV1 in streaming hardware in order to decrease bandwidth and increase quality. Video is usually streamed alongside the Opus and AAC audio codecs.
At launch in 2005, viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser. In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed. On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default playback method on supported browsers. With the switch to HTML5 video streams using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an HTTP-based adaptive bit-rate streaming solution optimizes the bitrate and quality for the available network.
The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at 144p for smoothening playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds, improving compatibility, as well as for the preservation of limited cellular data plans. The resolution setting can be adjusted automatically based on detected connection speed, as well as be set manually.
From 2008 to 2017, users could add "annotations" to their videos—such as pop-up text messages and hyperlinks, which allowed for interactive videos. By 2019 all annotations had been removed from videos, breaking some videos which depended on the feature. YouTube introduced standardized widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including "end screens" (a customizable array of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video).
In 2018, YouTube became an ISNI registry, and announced its intention to begin creating ISNI identifiers to uniquely identify the musicians whose videos it features. In 2020 it launched video chapters as a way to structure videos and improve navigation.
All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users can verify their account, normally through a mobile phone, to gain the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as produce live streams. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a 10-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. Videos can be at most 256 GB in size or 12 hours, whichever is less. As of 2021[update], automatic closed captions using speech recognition technology when a video is uploaded is available in 13 languages, and can be machine-translated during playback.
YouTube also offers manual closed captioning as part of its creator studio. YouTube formerly offered a 'Community Captions' feature, where viewers could write and submit captions for public display upon approval by the video uploader, but this was deprecated in September 2020.
YouTube accepts the most common container formats, including MP4, Matroska, FLV, AVI, WebM, 3GP, MPEG-PS, and the QuickTime File Format. Some intermediate video formats (i.e., primarily used for professional video editing, not for final delivery or storage) are also accepted, such as ProRes. YouTube provides recommended encoding settings.
Each video is identified by an eleven-character case-sensitive alphanumerical Base64 string in the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) which can contain letters, digits, an underscore (
_), and a dash (
In 2018, YouTube added a feature called Premiere which displays a notification to the user mentioning when the video will be available for the first time, like for a live stream but with a prerecorded video. When the scheduled time arrives, the video is aired as a live broadcast with a two-minute countdown. Optionally, a premiere can be initiated immediately.
Quality and formats
YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263), with mono MP3 audio. In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels. In December 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels. In July 2010, support for 4K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 3840 × 2160 pixels. In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels. In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with hybrid log–gamma (HLG) or perceptual quantizer (PQ). HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.
In June 2014, YouTube began to deploy support for high frame rate videos up to 60 frames per second (as opposed to 30 before), becoming available for user uploads in October. YouTube stated that this would enhance "motion-intensive" videos, such as video game footage.
YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. Viewers only indirectly influence the video quality. In the mobile apps, users choose between "Auto", which adjusts resolution based on the internet connection, "High Picture Quality" which will prioritize playing high-quality video, "Data saver" which will sacrifice video quality in favor of low data usage and "Advanced" which lets the user choose a stream resolution. On desktop, users choose between "Auto" and a specific resolution. It is not possible for the viewer to directly choose a higher bitrate (quality) for any selected resolution.
Since 2009, viewers have had the ability to watch 3D videos. In 2015, YouTube began natively supporting 360-degree video. Since April 2016, it allowed live streaming 360° video, and both normal and 360° video at up to 1440p, and since November 2016 both at up to 4K (2160p) resolution. Citing the limited number of users who watched more than 90-degrees, it began supporting an alternative stereoscopic video format known as VR180 which it said was easier to produce, which allows users to watch any video using virtual reality headsets.
In response to increased viewership during the COVID-19 pandemic, YouTube temporarily downgraded the quality of its videos. YouTube developed its own chip, called Argos, to help with encoding higher resolution videos in 2021.
In certain cases, YouTube allows the uploader to upgrade the quality of videos uploaded a long time ago in poor quality. One such partnership with Universal Music Group included remasters of 1,000 music videos.
YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February 2010. These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own live streaming infrastructure. In April 2011, YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live. The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners. It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London. In October 2012, more than 8 million people watched Felix Baumgartner's jump from the edge of space as a live stream on YouTube.
In May 2013, creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1,000 subscribers; in August of the same year the number was reduced to 100 subscribers, and in December the limit was removed. In February 2017, live streaming was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. Live streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers, but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers. Live streams support HDR, can be up to 4K resolution at 60 fps, and also support 360° video.
On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel. Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3.[non-primary source needed]
After the feature has been officially released, the community post feature gets activated automatically for every channel that passes a specific threshold of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This threshold was lowered over time[when?], from 10,000 subscribers to 1500 subscribers, to 1000 subscribers,[non-primary source needed] to 500 subscribers.
Channels that the community tab becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions (the name before March 2013 "One channel layout" redesign finalization: "channel comments") permanently erased, instead of co-existing or migrating.[non-primary source needed]
Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred". The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:
Juvenile, aggressive, misspelt, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through.
The Daily Telegraph commented in September 2008, that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts". The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.
Google subsequently implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ on November 6, 2013, that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone. The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse. In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change. The official YouTube announcement received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network like Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and added that "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with the outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:
Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad. Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.
Later, on July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube. Then on November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments. Creators may also choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can also allow other users to moderate their comments.
YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by, or related to another user's video can make a "video response". The eleven character YouTube video identifier (64 possible characters used in each position), allows for a theoretical maximum of 6411 or around 73.8 quintillion (73.8 billion billion) unique ids.
YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature on August 27, 2013. Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner. YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. A small number of videos can be downloaded as MP4 files. Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.
In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout. In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos. In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site. Users retain copyright of their own work under the default Standard YouTube License, but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose.
Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.
Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.
The mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5 in July 2010, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.
In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system. According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app.
In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles.
During the month of June that same year, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.
On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel. An app was available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, but was discontinued in August 2019. Videos can also be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5.[non-primary source needed] Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013, and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.
International and localization
On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt appeared in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 104 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.
|United States (and worldwide launch)||English, Spanish||February 14, 2005|||
|Brazil||Portuguese||June 19, 2007|||
|France||French, Catalan, Basque||June 19, 2007|||
|Ireland||English, Irish||June 19, 2007|||
|Italy||Italian, German, Catalan||June 19, 2007|||
|Japan||Japanese||June 19, 2007|||
|Netherlands||Dutch||June 19, 2007|||
|Poland||Polish||June 19, 2007|||
|Spain||Spanish, Galician, Catalan, Basque||June 19, 2007|||
|United Kingdom||English||June 19, 2007|||
|Mexico||Spanish||October 11, 2007|||
|Hong Kong||Chinese, English||October 17, 2007|||
|Taiwan||Chinese||October 18, 2007|||
|Australia||English||October 22, 2007|||
|New Zealand||English||October 22, 2007|||
|Canada||English, French||November 6, 2007|||
|Germany||German||November 8, 2007|||
|Russia||Russian||November 13, 2007|||
|South Korea||Korean||January 23, 2008|||
|India||Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu||May 7, 2008|||
|Israel||Hebrew, Arabic||September 16, 2008|||
|Czech Republic||Czech||October 9, 2008|||
|Sweden||Swedish||October 22, 2008|||
|South Africa||English, Afrikaans, Zulu||May 17, 2010|||
|Argentina||Spanish||September 8, 2010|||
|Algeria||Arabic, French||March 9, 2011|||
|Egypt||Arabic||March 9, 2011|||
|Jordan||Arabic||March 9, 2011|||
|Morocco||French, Arabic||March 9, 2011|||
|Saudi Arabia||Arabic||March 9, 2011|||
|Tunisia||Arabic, French||March 9, 2011|||
|Yemen||Arabic||March 9, 2011|||
|Kenya||English, Swahili||September 1, 2011|||
|Philippines||Filipino, English||October 13, 2011|||
|Singapore||English, Malay, Chinese, Tamil||October 20, 2011|||
|Belgium||French, Dutch, German||November 16, 2011|||
|Colombia||Spanish||November 30, 2011|||
|Uganda||English, Swahili||December 2, 2011|||
|Nigeria||English||December 7, 2011|||
|Chile||Spanish||January 20, 2012|||
|Hungary||Hungarian||February 29, 2012|||
|Malaysia||Malay, English||March 22, 2012|||
|Peru||Spanish||March 25, 2012|||
|United Arab Emirates||Arabic, English||April 1, 2012|||
|Greece||Greek||May 1, 2012|||
|Indonesia||Indonesian, English||May 17, 2012|||
|Ghana||English||June 5, 2012|||
|Senegal||French, English||July 4, 2012|||
|Turkey||Turkish||October 1, 2012|||
|Ukraine||Ukrainian||December 13, 2012|||
|Denmark||Danish||February 1, 2013|||
|Finland||Finnish, Swedish||February 1, 2013|||
|Norway||Norwegian||February 1, 2013|||
|Switzerland||German, French, Italian||March 29, 2013|||
|Austria||German||March 29, 2013|||
|Romania||Romanian||April 18, 2013|||
|Portugal||Portuguese||April 25, 2013|||
|Slovakia||Slovak||April 25, 2013|||
|Bahrain||Arabic||August 16, 2013|||
|Kuwait||Arabic||August 16, 2013|||
|Oman||Arabic||August 16, 2013|||
|Qatar||Arabic||August 16, 2013|||
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian||March 17, 2014|||
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian||March 17, 2014|||
|Croatia||Croatian||March 17, 2014|||
|Estonia||Estonian||March 17, 2014|||
|Latvia||Latvian||March 17, 2014|||
|Lithuania||Lithuanian||March 17, 2014|||
|North Macedonia||Macedonian, Serbian, Turkish||March 17, 2014|||
|Montenegro||Serbian, Croatian||March 17, 2014|||
|Serbia||Serbian||March 17, 2014|||
|Slovenia||Slovenian||March 17, 2014|||
|Thailand||Thai||April 1, 2014|||
|Lebanon||Arabic||May 1, 2014|||
|Puerto Rico||Spanish, English||August 23, 2014|||
|Luxembourg||French, German||2014|||
|Vietnam||Vietnamese||October 1, 2014|||
|Libya||Arabic||February 1, 2015|||
|Tanzania||English, Swahili||June 2, 2015|||
|Zimbabwe||English||June 2, 2015|||
|Azerbaijan||Azerbaijani||October 12, 2015|||
|Belarus||Belarusian, Russian||October 12, 2015|||
|Georgia||Georgian||October 12, 2015|||
|Kazakhstan||Kazakh, Russian||October 12, 2015|||
|Iraq||Arabic||November 9, 2015|||
|Nepal||Nepali||January 12, 2016|||
|Pakistan||Urdu, English||January 12, 2016|||
|Sri Lanka||Sinhala, Tamil, English||January 12, 2016|||
|Jamaica||English||August 4, 2016|||
|Malta||English||June 24, 2018|||
|Bolivia||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Costa Rica||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Ecuador||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|El Salvador||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Guatemala||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Honduras||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Nicaragua||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Panama||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Uruguay||Spanish||January 30, 2019|||
|Paraguay||Spanish, Guarani||February 21, 2019|||
|Dominican Republic||Spanish||February 21, 2019|||
|Cyprus||Greek, Turkish||March 13, 2019|||
|Liechtenstein||German||March 13, 2019|||
|Venezuela||Spanish||March 10, 2020|||
|Papua New Guinea||English||2020|||
|Bangladesh||Bengali, English||September 2, 2020|||
The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen based on the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content. The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims. In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain
youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.
In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television. In 2017, viewers on average watched YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day.
In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube. On August 5, 2015, YouTube patched the formerly notorious behaviour which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud. YouTube view counts once again updated in real time.
Since September 2019, subscriber counts are abbreviated. Only three leading digits of channels' subscriber counts are indicated publicly, compromising the function of third-party real-time indicators such as that of Social Blade. Exact counts remain available to channel operators inside YouTube Studio.
On November 11, 2021, after testing out this change in March of the same year, YouTube announced it would start hiding dislike counts on videos, making them invisible to viewers. The company stated the decision was in response to experiments which confirmed that smaller YouTube creators were more likely to be targeted in dislike brigading and harassment. Creators will still be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool, according to YouTube.
YouTube has faced numerous challenges and criticisms in its attempts to deal with copyright, including the site's first viral video, Lazy Sunday, which had to be taken down, due to copyright concerns. At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. Despite this advice, many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material remain on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted. From 2007 to 2009 organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.
In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe fair use defenses apply.
In the 2011 case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube. He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor. In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.
In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. As part of YouTube Music, Universal and YouTube signed an agreement in 2017, which was followed by separate agreements other major labels, which gave the company the right to advertising revenue when its music was played on YouTube. By 2019, creators were having videos taken down or demonetized when Content ID identified even short segments of copyrighted music within a much longer video, with different levels of enforcement depending on the record label. Experts noted that some of these clips said qualified for fair use.
In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. The system, which was initially called "Video Identification" and later became known as Content ID, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video.
By 2010, YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology".
In 2011, YouTube described Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".
By 2012, Content ID accounted for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.
An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use. If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.
Before 2016, videos were not monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. Should the uploader want to monetize the video again, they may remove the disputed audio in the "Video Manager". YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.
Moderation and offensive content
YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".[better source needed] Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines. Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube contracts companies to hire content moderators, who view content flagged as potentially violating YouTube's content policies and determines if they should be removed. In September 2020, a class-action suit was filed by a former content moderator who reported developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after an 18-month period on the job. The former content moderator said that she was regularly made to exceed YouTube's stated limit of four hours per day of viewing graphic content. The lawsuit alleges that YouTube's contractors gave little to no training or support for its moderators' mental health, made prospective employees sign NDAs before showing them any examples of content they would see while reviewing, and censored all mention of trauma from its internal forums. It also purports that requests for extremely graphic content to be blurred, reduced in size or made monochrome, per recommendations from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, were rejected by YouTube as not a high priority for the company.
To limit the spread of misinformation and fake news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how it plans to deal with technically manipulated videos.
Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989. In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:
We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. (July 2008)
In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki. YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines. In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.
In 2018, YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news, filling the infobox with content from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech. In the wake of the Notre-Dame de Paris fire on April 15, 2019, several user-uploaded videos of the landmark fire were flagged by YouTube' system automatically with an Encyclopædia Britannica article on the false conspiracy theories around the September 11 attacks. Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.
Five leading content creators whose channels were based on LGBTQ+ materials filed a federal lawsuit against YouTube in August 2019, alleging that YouTube's algorithms divert discovery away from their channels, impacting their revenue. The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.
YouTube as a tool to promote conspiracy theories and far-right content
YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse. According to an investigation by The Wall Street Journal, "YouTube's recommendations often lead users to channels that feature conspiracy theories, partisan viewpoints and misleading videos, even when those users haven't shown interest in such content. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints." When users search for political or scientific terms, YouTube's search algorithms often give prominence to hoaxes and conspiracy theories. After YouTube drew controversy for giving top billing to videos promoting falsehoods and conspiracy when people made breaking-news queries during the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, YouTube changed its algorithm to give greater prominence to mainstream media sources. In 2018, it was reported that YouTube was again promoting fringe content about breaking news, giving great prominence to conspiracy videos about Anthony Bourdain's death.
In 2017, it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts. After firms started to stop advertising on YouTube in the wake of this reporting, YouTube apologized and said that it would give firms greater control over where ads got placed.
Alex Jones, known for right-wing conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube. YouTube drew criticism in 2018 when it removed a video from Media Matters compiling offensive statements made by Jones, stating that it violated its policies on "harassment and bullying". On August 6, 2018, however, YouTube removed Alex Jones' YouTube page following a content violation.
University of North Carolina professor Zeynep Tufekci has referred to YouTube as "The Great Radicalizer", saying "YouTube may be one of the most powerful radicalizing instruments of the 21st century." Jonathan Albright of the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University described YouTube as a "conspiracy ecosystem".
In January 2019, YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy starting in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing "content that could misinform users in harmful ways." YouTube gave flat earth theories, miracle cures, and 9/11 trutherism as examples. Efforts within YouTube engineering to stop recommending borderline extremist videos falling just short of forbidden hate speech, and track their popularity were originally rejected because they could interfere with viewer engagement. In late 2019, the site began implementing measures directed towards "raising authoritative content and reducing borderline content and harmful misinformation."
In a July 2019 study based on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.
A 2019 BBC investigation of YouTube searches in ten different languages found that YouTube's algorithm promoted health misinformation, including fake cancer cures. In Brazil, YouTube has been linked to pushing pseudoscientific misinformation on health matters, as well as elevated far-right fringe discourse and conspiracy theories.
In the Philippines, numerous channels such as "Showbiz Fanaticz," "Robin Sweet Showbiz," and "PH BREAKING NEWS," each with at least 100,000 subscribers, have been proven to be spreading misinformation related to political figures ahead of the 2022 Philippine elections.
Use among white supremacists
Before 2019, YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist content that had violated its acceptable use policies but otherwise did not have site-wide policies against hate speech.
In the wake of the March 2019 Christchurch mosque attacks, YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate speech, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks. These platforms were pressured to remove such content, but in an interview with The New York Times, YouTube's chief product officer Neal Mohan said that unlike content such as ISIS videos which take a particular format and thus easy to detect through computer-aided algorithms, general hate speech was more difficult to recognize and handle, and thus could not readily take action to remove without human interaction.
YouTube joined an initiative led by France and New Zealand with other countries and tech companies in May 2019 to develop tools to be used to block online hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national level, to be levied against technology firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate. Subsequently, on June 5, 2019, YouTube announced a major change to its terms of service, "specifically prohibiting videos alleging that a group is superior in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exclusion based on qualities like age, gender, race, caste, religion, sexual orientation or veteran status." YouTube identified specific examples of such videos as those that "promote or glorify Nazi ideology, which is inherently discriminatory". YouTube further stated it would "remove content denying that well-documented violent events, like the Holocaust or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place."
In June 2020, YouTube banned several channels associated with white supremacy, including those of Stefan Molyneux, David Duke, and Richard B. Spencer, asserting these channels violated their policies on hate speech. The ban occurred the same day that Reddit announced the ban on several hate speech sub-forums including r/The_Donald.
Handling of COVID-19 pandemic and other misinformation
Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic that 5G communications technology was responsible for the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 which led to multiple 5G towers in the United Kingdom being attacked by arsonists, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner.
YouTube extended this policy in September 2021 to cover videos disseminating misinformation related to any vaccine, including those long approved against measles or Hepatitis B, that had received approval from local health authorities or the World Health Organization. The platform removed the accounts of anti-vaccine campaigners such as Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Joseph Mercola at this time. Two accounts linked to RT Deutsch, the German channel of the Russian RT network were removed as well for breaching YouTube's policies.
Google and YouTube implemented policies in October 2021 to deny monetization or revenue to advertisers or content creators that promoted climate change denial, which "includes content referring to climate change as a hoax or a scam, claims denying that long-term trends show the global climate is warming, and claims denying that greenhouse gas emissions or human activity contribute to climate change."
In July 2022 YouTube announced policies to combat misinformation surrounding abortion, such as videos with instructions to perform abortion methods that are considered unsafe and videos that contain misinformation about the safety of abortion.
Child safety and wellbeing
Leading into 2017, there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family's activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material. In 2017, YouTube reported that time watching family vloggers had increased by 90%. However, with the increase in videos featuring children, the site began to face several controversies related to child safety. During Q2 2017, the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive, which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse. Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. A similar case happened in 2019 when the owners of the channel Fantastic Adventures was accused of abusing her adopted children. Her videos would later be deleted.
Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term "Elsagate" was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy. On November 11, 2017, YouTube announced it was strengthening site security to protect children from unsuitable content. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family-friendly characters. As part of a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels that showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a channel with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in odd and upsetting situations. According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually prior to its deletion.
Even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content. Alternative, some of the most-watched children's programming on YouTube comes from channels that have no identifiable owners, raising concerns of intent and purpose. One channel that had been of concern was "Cocomelon" which provided numerous mass-produced animated videos aimed at children. Up through 2019, it had drawn up to US$10 million a month in ad revenue and was one of the largest kid-friendly channels on YouTube before 2020. Ownership of Cocomelon was unclear outside of its ties to "Treasure Studio", itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel's purpose, but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners in February 2020 regarding "Cocomelon", who stated their goal for the channel was to simply entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors. The anonymity of such channel raise concerns because of the lack of knowledge of what purpose they are trying to serve. The difficulty to identify who operates these channels "adds to the lack of accountability", according to Josh Golin of the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, and educational consultant Renée Chernow-O'Leary found the videos were designed to entertain with no intent to educate, all leading to both critics and parents to be concerned for their children becoming too enraptured by the content from these channels. Content creators that earnestly make kid-friendly videos have found it difficult to compete with larger channels like ChuChu TV, unable to produce content at the same rate as these large channels, and lack the same means of being promoted through YouTube's recommendation algorithms that the larger animated channel networks have shared.
In January 2019, YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm" (such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge) and videos featuring pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children.
Sexualization of children and pedophilia
Also in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian. Other child-centric videos originally uploaded to YouTube began propagating on the dark web, and uploaded or embedded onto forums known to be used by pedophiles.
As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube. In December 2018, The Times found more than 100 grooming cases in which children were manipulated into sexually implicit behavior (such as taking off clothes, adopting overtly sexual poses and touching other children inappropriately) by strangers. After a reporter flagged the videos in question, half of them were removed, and the rest were removed after The Times contacted YouTube's PR department.
In February 2019, YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a "wormhole" that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user's recommended content feature only these types of videos. Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions or otherwise making indecent remarks. In some cases, other users had re-uploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network. In the wake of the controversy, the service reported that they had deleted over 400 channels and tens of millions of comments, and reported the offending users to law enforcement and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. A spokesperson explained that "any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube. There's more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly." Despite these measures, AT&T, Disney, Dr. Oetker, Epic Games, and Nestlé all pulled their advertising from YouTube.
Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments. The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem. YouTube also began to flag channels that predominantly feature children, and preemptively disable their comments sections. "Trusted partners" can request that comments be re-enabled, but the channel will then become responsible for moderating comments. These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics. YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators.
A related attempt to algorithmically flag videos containing references to the string "CP" (an abbreviation of child pornography) resulted in some prominent false positives involving unrelated topics using the same abbreviation, including videos related to the mobile video game Pokémon Go (which uses "CP" as an abbreviation of the statistic "Combat Power"), and Club Penguin. YouTube apologized for the errors and reinstated the affected videos. Separately, online trolls have attempted to have videos flagged for takedown or removal by commenting with statements similar to what the child predators had said; this activity became an issue during the PewDiePie vs T-Series rivalry in early 2019. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity.
In June 2019, The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children. As a result, Senator Josh Hawley stated plans to introduce federal legislation that would ban YouTube and other video sharing sites from including videos that predominantly feature minors as "recommended" videos, excluding those that were "professionally produced", such as videos of televised talent shows. YouTube has suggested potential plans to remove all videos featuring children from the main YouTube site and transferring them to the YouTube Kids site where they would have stronger controls over the recommendation system, as well as other major changes on the main YouTube site to the recommended feature and autoplay system.
April Fools gags
YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016. In 2008, all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "rickrolling". The next year, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down, which YouTube claimed was a "new layout". In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode which rendered video imagery into ASCII art letters "in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second."
The next year, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat. In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about a purported option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD.
In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim in an uploaded video that the video-sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would shut down for ten years before being re-launched in 2023, featuring only the winning video. The video starred several YouTube celebrities, including Antoine Dodson. A video of two presenters announcing the nominated videos streamed live for 12 hours.
In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance". The next year, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude. In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.
In September 2016, YouTube announced the launch of its own social networking feature named YouTube Community, allowing only users with over 500 subscribers to enable it on their profiles. Community posts can include images, GIFs, text and video.
YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution. In May 2022, Google announced that they would be shutting down YouTube Go in August 2022.
YouTube announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India. It was launched in India in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 other countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa. It was rolled out in 130 countries worldwide, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60% of the world's population.
YouTube Kids is an American children's video app developed by YouTube, a subsidiary of Google. The app was developed in response to parental and government scrutiny on the content available to children. The app provides a version of the service-oriented towards children, with curated selections of content, parental control features, and filtering of videos deemed inappropriate viewing for children aged under 13, 8 or 5 depending on the age grouping chosen. First released on February 15, 2015, as an Android and iOS mobile app, the app has since been released for LG, Samsung, and Sony smart TVs, as well as for Android TV. On May 27, 2020, it became available on Apple TV. As of September 2019, the app is available in 69 countries, including Hong Kong and Macau, and one province. YouTube launched a web-based version of YouTube Kids on August 30, 2019.
YouTube Movies is a service by YouTube that shows movies via its website. Around 100–500 movies are free to view, with ads. Some new movies get added and some get removed, unannounced at a new month.
In early 2018, Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music. On May 22, 2018, the music streaming platform named "YouTube Music" was launched.
YouTube Premium (formerly YouTube Red) is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to original programming, and background and offline video playback on mobile devices. YouTube Premium was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music "All Access" service. On October 28, 2015, the service was relaunched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos and access to exclusive original content. As of November 2016[update], the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis. As of June 2017[update], the first season of YouTube Originals had gotten 250 million views in total.
In September 2020, YouTube announced that it would be launching a beta version of a new platform of 15-second videos, similar to TikTok, called YouTube Shorts. The platform was first tested in India but as of March 2021 has expanded to other countries including the United States with videos now able to be up to 1 minute long. The platform is not a standalone app, but is integrated into the main YouTube app. Like TikTok, it gives users access to built-in creative tools, including the possibility of adding licensed music to their videos. The platform had its global beta launch in July 2021.
In 2018, YouTube started testing a new feature initially called "YouTube Reels". The feature is nearly identical to Instagram Stories and Snapchat Stories. YouTube later renamed the feature "YouTube Stories". It is only available to creators who have more than 10,000 subscribers and can only be posted/seen in the YouTube mobile app.
For example, in October 2009, a comment search feature accessible under
/comment_search was implemented as part of this program. The feature was removed later.
Later the same year, YouTube Feather was introduced as a lightweight alternative website for countries with limited internet speeds.
On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for United States customers at a price of US$65 per month. Initially launching in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017, the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Premium original content.
Both private individuals and large production corporations have used YouTube to grow audiences. Indie creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic. Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use ... promotional platform for the music labels." In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media. Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year. By early 2013, Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.
Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution," TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication." Anderson asserted that it is not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history." In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes' Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world," with technology poised to disrupt how people learn. YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy." The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white. A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism," in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation. The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.
YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape. Describing the Arab Spring (2010–2012), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world." In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."
Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012 and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance. In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation." Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.
Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally. TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.
A 2017 article in The New York Times Magazine posited that YouTube had become "the new talk radio" for the far right. Almost a year before YouTube's January 2019 announcement that it would begin a "gradual change" of "reducing recommendations of borderline content and content that could misinform users in harmful ways", Zeynep Tufekci had written in The New York Times that, "(g)iven its billion or so users, YouTube may be one of the most powerful radicalizing instruments of the 21st century". Under YouTube's changes to its recommendation engine, the most recommended channel evolved from conspiracy theorist Alex Jones (2016) to Fox News (2019). According to a 2020 study, "An emerging journalistic consensus theorizes the central role played by the video 'recommendation engine,' but we believe that this is premature. Instead, we propose the 'Supply and Demand' framework for analyzing politics on YouTube." A 2022 study found that "despite widespread concerns that YouTube's algorithms send people down 'rabbit holes' with recommendations to extremist videos, little systematic evidence exists to support this conjecture", "exposure to alternative and extremist channel videos on YouTube is heavily concentrated among a small group of people with high prior levels of gender and racial resentment.", and "contrary to the 'rabbit holes' narrative, non-subscribers are rarely recommended videos from alternative and extremist channels and seldom follow such recommendations when offered."
The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra selected their membership based on individual video performances. Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work, with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes. The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries. Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm," legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy. In May 2018, after London Metropolitan Police claimed that drill music videos glamorizing violence gave rise to gang violence, YouTube deleted 30 videos.
Prior to 2020, Google did not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales. In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at $3.7 billion. In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit $5.6 billion according to eMarketer, while others estimated $4.7 billion. The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising. In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month. The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Hulu.
Google first published exact revenue numbers for YouTube in February 2020 as part of Alphabet's 2019 financial report. According to Google, YouTube had made US$15.1 billion in ad revenue in 2019, in contrast to US$8.1 billion in 2017 and US$11.1 billion in 2018. YouTube's revenues made up nearly 10% of the total Alphabet revenue in 2019. These revenues accounted for approximately 20 million subscribers combined between YouTube Premium and YouTube Music subscriptions, and 2 million subscribers to YouTube TV.
YouTube had $19.8 billion in revenue in 2020.
Partnership with corporations
YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006. In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC for three channels with BBC content, one for news and two for entertainment. In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney. In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service, which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010.[needs update] The service offers over 6,000 films.
2017 advertiser boycott
In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered safely and appropriately". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear". In early April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.
On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000-lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.
In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program (YPP), a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site. YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.
There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of the eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.
YouTube policies restrict certain forms of content from being included in videos being monetized with advertising, including videos containing violence, strong language, sexual content, "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown" (unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain"), and videos whose user comments contain "inappropriate" content.
In 2013, YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos. In April 2017, YouTube set an eligibility requirement of 10,000 lifetime views for a paid subscription. On January 16, 2018, the eligibility requirement for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watch-time within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers. The move was seen as an attempt to ensure that videos being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels.
YouTube Play Buttons, a part of the YouTube Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube of its most popular channels. The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel alloy, golden plated brass, silver plated metal, ruby, and red tinted crystal glass are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million, fifty million subscribers, and one hundred million subscribers, respectively.
YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain". In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators". Boing Boing reported in 2019 that LGBT keywords resulted in demonetization.
As of November 2020 in the United States and June 2021 worldwide, YouTube reserves the right to monetize any video on the platform, even if their uploader is not a member of the YouTube Partner Program. This will occur on channels whose content is deemed "advertiser-friendly", and all revenue will go directly to Google without any share given to the uploader.
Revenue to copyright holders
The majority of YouTube's advertising revenue goes to the publishers and video producers who hold the rights to their videos; the company retains 45% of the ad revenue. In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games. In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators through the Nintendo Creators Program. On March 20, 2019, Nintendo announced on Twitter that the company will end the Creators program. Operations for the program ceased on March 20, 2019.
Censorship and bans
YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including:
- Limiting public access and exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest.
- Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan).
- Morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran.
Access to specific videos is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protection laws (e.g. in Germany), violations of hate speech, and preventing access to videos judged inappropriate for youth, which is also done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with "restricted mode". Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to its bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.
As of 2018[update], public access to YouTube is blocked in many countries, including China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan. In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.
Reports emerged that since October 2019, comments posted with Chinese characters insulting the Chinese Communist Party (共匪 or "communist bandit") or (五毛 or "50 Cent Party", referring to state-sponsored commentators) were being automatically deleted within 15 seconds.
Specific incidents where YouTube has been blocked include:
- Thailand blocked access in April 2007 over a video said to be insulting the Thai king.
- Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's occupation of Western Sahara. YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".
- Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video. During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth-most-accessed site in Turkey. In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."
- Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software. In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content". The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked. Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013. The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube launched a Pakistan-specific version.
- Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch. In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.
- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site. A court in the southern Russian Republic of Chechnya ruled that Innocence of Muslims should be banned. In Libya and Egypt, it was blamed for violent protests. YouTube stated: "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."
- Russia threatened to ban YouTube after deleting two German RT channels in September 2021. Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, YouTube on 1 March announced it was beginning to remove content from RT (and other Russian government funded outlets) from its platform in Europe.
- Alternative media
- CNN/YouTube presidential debates
- Comparison of video hosting services
- List of Google Easter eggs#YouTube
- List of Internet phenomena
- List of most-viewed online videos in the first 24 hours
- List of most-disliked YouTube videos
- List of most-liked YouTube videos
- List of most-viewed YouTube videos
- List of most-subscribed YouTube channels
- List of online video platforms
- List of YouTubers
- Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc.
- Reply Girls
- Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.
- YouTube Awards
- YouTube Creator Awards
- YouTube Instant
- YouTube Live
- YouTube Multi Channel Network
- YouTube Music Awards
- YouTube Rewind
- YouTube Theater
- YouTube Poop
- ^ a b Weprin, Alex (February 1, 2022). "YouTube Ad Revenue Tops $8.6B, Beating Netflix in the Quarter". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
- ^ "Most used social media 2021". Statista. January 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
- ^ Claburn, Thomas (January 5, 2017). "Google's Grumpy code makes Python Go". The Register. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Wilson, Jesse (May 19, 2009). "Guice Deuce". Official Google Code Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube Architecture". High Scalability. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- ^ "Golang Vitess: a database wrapper written in Go as used by Youtube". GitHub. October 23, 2018.
- ^ "Most used social media 2021". Statista. January 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
- ^ a b Goodrow, Cristos (February 27, 2017). "You know what's cool? A billion hours". YouTube. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
- ^ a b Loke Hale, James (May 7, 2019). "More Than 500 Hours Of Content Are Now Being Uploaded To YouTube Every Minute". TubeFilter. Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- ^ Neufeld, Dorothy (January 27, 2021). "The 50 Most Visited Websites in the World". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
- ^ "How did Google become the world's most valuable company?". BBC News. February 1, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube global advertising revenues per quarter 2021". Statista. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- ^ a b Helft, Miguel; Richtel, Matt (October 10, 2006). "Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube founders now superstars". The Sydney Morning Herald. October 11, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- ^ a b Cloud, John (December 25, 2006). "The YouTube Gurus". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ^ "r | p 2006: YouTube: From Concept to Hypergrowth – Jawed Karim". Archived from the original on December 21, 2021 – via www.youtube.com.
- ^ Dredge, Stuart (March 16, 2016). "YouTube was meant to be a video-dating website". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- ^ Helft, Miguel (October 12, 2006). "San Francisco Hedge Fund Invested in YouTube". The New York Times. No. Vol.156, Issue 53, 730.
- ^ Kehaulani Goo, Sara (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Whois Record for
www.youtube.com". DomainTools. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- ^ Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Me at the zoo". YouTube. April 23, 2005. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ "Ronaldinho: Touch of Gold – YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 25, 2005. Archived from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- ^ "Most Viewed – YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 2, 2005. Archived from the original on November 2, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube: a history". The Daily Telegraph. April 17, 2010. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ a b Pullen, John Patrick (February 23, 2011). "How Vimeo became hipster YouTube". Fortune. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- ^ a b Novak, Matt (February 14, 2020). "Here's What People Thought of YouTube When It First Launched in the Mid-2000s". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- ^ Biggs, John (February 20, 2006). "A Video Clip Goes Viral, and a TV Network Wants to Control It". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- ^ Wallenstein, Andrew; Spangler, Todd (December 18, 2015). "'Lazy Sunday' Turns 10: 'SNL' Stars Recall How TV Invaded the Internet". Variety. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- ^ Higgens, Bill (October 5, 2017). "Hollywood Flashback: 'SNL's' 'Lazy Sunday' Put YouTube on the Map in 2005". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- ^ "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online". USA Today. July 16, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). "Help! YouTube is killing my business!". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). "Utube sues YouTube". The Times. London. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ La Monica, Paul R. (October 9, 2006). "Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion". CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (October 9, 2006). "Google Has Acquired YouTube". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (November 13, 2006). "Google Closes YouTube Acquisition". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age. November 14, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings". comScore. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". AFP. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube moves past 3 billion views a day". CNET. CBS Interactive. May 25, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Bryant, Martin (May 25, 2011). "YouTube hits 3 Billion views per day, 2 DAYS worth of video uploaded every minute". The Next Web. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012). "Exclusive: YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels". BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- ^ Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). "YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!". Mashable. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- ^ "YouTube rolls out redesigned 'One Channel' layout to all users" (TheNextWeb article, June 5, 2013).
- ^ Welch, Chris (May 19, 2013). "YouTube users now upload 100 hours of video every minute". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ E. Solsman, Joan (November 12, 2014). "YouTube's Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Wasserman, Todd (February 15, 2015). "The revolution wasn't televised: The early days of YouTube". Mashable. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- ^ "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- ^ "Music Industry Companies Opening Video Site". December 7, 2009.
- ^ "Bad Romance By Lady Gaga Becomes First YouTube Video To Hit 200 Million Views". May 9, 2010.
- ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (February 5, 2014). "Google taps longtime executive Wojcicki to head YouTube". Reuters. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Avalos, George (January 20, 2016). "YouTube expansion in San Bruno signals big push by video site". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- ^ "YouTube has a new look and, for the first time, a new logo". The Verge. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
- ^ a b c "YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- ^ Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). "YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week". Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- ^ "Paid content discontinued January 1, 2018 – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
- ^ Browne, Ryan (June 22, 2018). "YouTube introduces paid subscriptions and merchandise selling in bid to help creators monetize the platform". CNBC. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
- ^ Parker, Laura (April 12, 2017). "A Chat With a Live Streamer Is Yours, for a Price". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service". The Verge. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- ^ Reader, Ruth (October 21, 2015). "Google wants you to pay $9.99 per month for ad-free YouTube". Venturebeat. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- ^ "Exclusive: An inside look at the new ad-free YouTube Red". The Verge. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Music isn't perfect, but it's still heaven for music nerds". Engadget. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- ^ Perez, Sarah (February 23, 2015). "Hands on With "YouTube Kids," Google's Newly Launched, Child-Friendly YouTube App". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Dredge, Stuart (August 26, 2015). "Google launches YouTube Gaming to challenge Amazon-owned Twitch". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- ^ "YouTube shooting: Suspect visited shooting range before attack". BBC News. April 4, 2018. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- ^ Lumb, David (February 27, 2017). "One billion hours of YouTube are watched every day". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Rouse, Kevin (June 4, 2020). "Rabbit Hole, episode Eight: 'We Go All'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- ^ Gold, Hadas (March 19, 2020). "Netflix and YouTube are slowing down in Europe to keep the internet from breaking". CNN. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube is reducing the quality of videos for the next month — and it's because increased traffic amid the coronavirus outbreak is straining internet bandwidth". Business Insider. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (April 9, 2018). "YouTube Illegally Tracks Data on Kids, Groups Claim in FTC Complaint". Variety. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- ^ Mike, Masnick (September 6, 2019). "FTC's Latest Fine Of YouTube Over COPPA Violations Shows That COPPA And Section 230 Are On A Collision Course". Techdirt. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- ^ Kelly, Makena (September 4, 2019). "Google will pay $170 million for YouTube's child privacy violations". The Verge. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- ^ Fung, Brian (September 4, 2019). "Google and FTC reach $170 million settlement over alleged YouTube violations of kids' privacy". CNN Business. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- ^ Matthews, David (January 6, 2020). "YouTube rolls out new controls aimed at controlling children's content". TechSpot. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- ^ Kelly, Makena (December 11, 2019). "YouTube calls for 'more clarity' on the FTC's child privacy rules". The Verge. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (February 24, 2021). "YouTube New 'Supervised' Mode Will Let Parents Restrict Older Kids' Video Viewing". Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
- ^ Welch, Chris (April 18, 2019). "YouTube is finally coming back to Amazon's Fire TV devices". The Verge. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ Solsman, Joan E. "Roku: YouTube TV app removed from channel store as deal with Google ends". CNET. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ Livemint (September 19, 2022). "YouTube ends experiment that forced users to watch large unskippable ads". mint. Retrieved September 21, 2022.
- ^ a b "YouTube removing dislike 'discourages trolls' but 'unhelpful for users'". BBC News. November 12, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
- ^ Vincent, James (November 17, 2021). "YouTube co-founder predicts 'decline' of the platform following removal of dislikes". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- ^ Binder, Matt (November 17, 2021). "YouTube cofounder protests decision to remove 'dislikes' with an edit to first-ever YouTube upload". Mashable. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- ^ Kan, Michael (November 17, 2021). "YouTube Co-Founder Says Removing Dislike Counts Is a 'Stupid Idea'". PCMag. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
- ^ Kan, Michael (November 29, 2021). "Browser Extension Brings Back Dislike Count to YouTube Videos". PCMag. Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- ^ Wojcicki, Susan (January 25, 2022). "Letter from Susan: Our 2022 Priorities". YouTube Official Blog. Retrieved March 8, 2022.
- ^ Barman, Nabajeet; Martini, Maria G. (May 2017). "H.264/MPEG-AVC, H.265/MPEG-HEVC and VP9 codec comparison for live gaming video streaming". 2017 Ninth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX): 1–6. doi:10.1109/QoMEX.2017.7965686. ISBN 978-1-5386-4024-1. S2CID 28395957.
- ^ a b "Youtube video/audio codec list". GitHub. 2018. Archived from the original on September 11, 2021. Alt URL
- ^ "AV1 Beta Launch Playlist". YouTube. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- ^ Schoon, Ben (January 27, 2021). "YouTube may require AV1 support in the future". 9to5Google. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- ^ a b Protalinski, Emil (January 27, 2015). "YouTube ditches Flash for HTML5 video by default". VentureBeat. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ "HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there". Archived from the original on November 10, 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- ^ Tiwari, Rajeev (January 3, 2013). "Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube". Streamingcodecs.blogspot.hu. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- ^ "Change the quality of your video – YouTube Help". support.google.com.
- ^ Conner, Katie (July 1, 2019). "Make YouTube videos sharper or load faster". CNET.
- ^ "YouTube launches mobile-friendly "End Screens" feature to keep viewers watching more video". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- ^ Porter, Jon (November 27, 2018). "YouTube annotations will disappear for good in January". The Verge. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- ^ Statt, Nick (March 16, 2017). "YouTube to discontinue video annotations because they never worked on mobile". The Verge. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- ^ "YouTube Adopts ISNI ID for Artists & Songwriters". ISNI. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
- ^ a b "Upload videos longer than 15 minutes" YouTube Help. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- ^ "Introduction to live streaming" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ Fisher, Ken (March 29, 2006). "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). "YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Patel, Vinay (May 6, 2021). "YouTube Automatic Translation Feature Rolls Out For Some Users". Android Headlines. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
- ^ "Supported YouTube file formats – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
- ^ "Recommended upload encoding settings – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
- ^ "Here's Why YouTube Will Practically Never Run Out of Unique Video IDs". www.mentalfloss.com. March 23, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
- ^ "What are YouTube Premieres, and How Do You Use Them?".
- ^ Uro, Tinic (August 13, 2005). "The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8". Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions.
- ^ Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). "Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1" (PDF). p. 72. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- ^ "Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply". Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube Mobile goes live". June 17, 2007. Archived from the original on June 20, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube Videos in High Quality". Official YouTube Blog. March 14, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (November 20, 2008). "YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Sarukkai, Ramesh (July 9, 2010). "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). "YouTube now supports 4K-resolution videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube Announces Partner Grants Program, Support For 4K Video Resolution". TechCrunch. July 9, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
- ^ Schroeder, Stan (June 10, 2015). "You can watch an 8K video on YouTube – in theory". MashableUK. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- ^ Robertson, Steven; Verma, Sanjeev (November 7, 2016). "True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos". YouTube Help. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "Will 60fps YouTube videos force game developers to prioritize frame rate?". ExtremeTech. June 27, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- ^ Welch, Chris (October 29, 2014). "YouTube now supports 60fps playback, and video games look amazing". The Verge. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- ^ Stuart, Keith (June 27, 2014). "Battlefield Hardline ushers in era of smooth YouTube trailers". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- ^ Kumparak, Greg (October 29, 2014). "YouTube Can Now Play Videos at a Buttery 60 Frames Per Second". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "How to adjust adjust video quality on YouTube". The Indian Express. April 25, 2021. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
- ^ "Change the quality of your video – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube in 3D". YouTube. July 21, 2009. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Bonnington, Christina (March 13, 2015). "You Can Now Watch and Upload 360-Degree Videos on YouTube". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- ^ a b Garun, Natt (November 30, 2016). "YouTube now supports 4K live-streaming for both 360-degree and standard video". The Verge.
- ^ "New YouTube live features: live 360, 1440p, embedded captions, and VP9 ingestion". googleblog.com. YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog. April 19, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube's "VR180" format cuts down on VR video's prohibitive requirements". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- ^ Broida, Rick. "Watch any YouTube video in VR mode". CNET. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- ^ Espinoza, Javier; Fildes, Nic; Murphy, Hannah; Bradshaw, Tim (March 20, 2020). "YouTube, Amazon and Netflix cut picture quality in Europe". Financial Times. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (March 24, 2020). "YouTube is reducing its default video quality to standard definition for the next month". The Verge. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- ^ Shankland, Stephen. "Google supercharges YouTube with a custom video chip". CNET. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ Perez, Sarah (June 19, 2019). "YouTube partners with Universal to upgrade nearly 1,000 classic music videos to HD". TechCrunch. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
- ^ Gross, Doug (September 13, 2010). "YouTube testing live streaming". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube in two-day live video-streaming test". BBC News. September 13, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube is going LIVE". YouTube Official Blog. April 8, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ Pierce, David (August 17, 2015). "YouTube Is the Sleeping Giant of Livestreaming". Wired. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ "Felix Baumgartner's jump from space's edge watched by millions". Associated Press. October 15, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- ^ Blagdon, Jeff (August 3, 2013). "YouTube opens up live streaming to anyone with 100 or more subscribers". The Verge.
- ^ "YouTube opens live streaming for all verified accounts". MacNN. December 13, 2013. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ Palladino, Valentina (February 8, 2017). "YouTube now lets creators with 10,000 subscribers live-stream video on mobile". Ars Technica.
- ^ "Create a live stream" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- ^ Porter, Jon (December 8, 2020). "YouTube live streams now support HDR". The Verge. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- ^ Perez, Sarah (September 13, 2016). "YouTube gets its own social network with the launch of YouTube Community". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ McEvoy, Kiley (September 13, 2016). "YouTube Community goes beyond video". YouTube Creators Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "Create a Community post – Computer – YouTube Help". support.google.com.
- ^ Peters, Jay (September 9, 2021). "YouTube halves the number of subscribers you need to unlock Community posting". The Verge. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
- ^ "Engage with creators on Community posts – Computer – YouTube Help". support.google.com.
- ^ Grossman, Lev (December 25, 2006). "You – Yes, You – Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Owen, Paul (November 3, 2009). "Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- ^ Moore, Matthew (September 2, 2008). "YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Rundle, Michael (April 7, 2012). "Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube And The Law Of Big Numbers". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- ^ "No more links in comments?". Google product forums. 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- ^ "View and post comments". Google Support. 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- ^ Hern, Alex (November 8, 2013). "YouTube co-founder hurls abuse at Google over new YouTube comments". The Guardian. London. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- ^ "Meet the new YouTube comments" on YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- ^ "YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- ^ Chase, Melvin (November 20, 2013). "YouTube comments require Google+ account, Google faces uproar". Newsday. (subscription required) Alternate link Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Google unlinking Google+ from YouTube". BBC News. London. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- ^ E. Solsman, Joan (November 3, 2016). "YouTube helps creators blast trolls from comments". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Jotham, Immanuel (July 24, 2017). "New YouTube feature allows creators to automatically block spam". International Business Times UK. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (December 3, 2020). "YouTube will ask commenters to rethink posting if their message seems offensive". The Verge. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube introduces new feature to address toxic comments". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube embedded video guide". Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- ^ "So long, video responses ... Next up: better ways to connect". YouTube Creators Blog. August 27, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ YouTube. "Control comments and video responses". Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- ^ Lowensohn, Josh (January 16, 2009). "(Some) YouTube videos get download option". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). "YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- ^ Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). "YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Torrentfreak (June 19, 2012). "Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- ^ Zamzar (June 12, 2012). "Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- ^ Park, Jane (June 2, 2011). "YouTube launches support for CC BY and a CC library featuring 10,000 videos". Creative Commons. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- ^ Casserly, Cathy (July 25, 2012). "Here's your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com.
- ^ Chitu, Alex (June 15, 2007). "Mobile YouTube". Unofficial Google Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29". Apple. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 28, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ Zibreg, Christian (July 8, 2010). "Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android". Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (July 7, 2010). "YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market". December 8, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- ^ Dredge, Stuart (September 11, 2012). "New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- ^ Smith, Cooper (September 5, 2013). "Google+ Is The Fourth Most-Used Smartphone App". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today". Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles". Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ "Coming Up Next ... YouTube on Your TV". YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- ^ "Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen". YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ "Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search". Mashable. June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- ^ "YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch". Techradar.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube App for Nintendo 3DS Discontinuation". Nintendo America. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- ^ Ali, Sarah (November 22, 2012). "Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (December 17, 2013). "YouTube Channel Now Playing on Roku". Variety. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ O'Grady, Richard (October 28, 2014). "Pwn, share, repeat with YouTube on PlayStation 4". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube for Nintendo Switch". Nintendo Game Details. Nintendo of America. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France News". PC Advisor. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ See the YouTube localization list at the bottom of the YouTube website.
- ^ "Presentan hoy YouTube México" [YouTube México launched today]. El Universal (in Spanish). October 11, 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- ^ "中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場！". Stanley5. October 17, 2007. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- ^ a b Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube перевелся на русский" (in Russian). Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- ^ Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). "YouTube Launches Korean Site". PC World. Archived from the original on April 28, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- ^ Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it's crap. It sucks". The Czech Daily Word. Wordpress.com. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. Archived from the original on September 12, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- ^ Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). "Google launches YouTube in Kenya". The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- ^ Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "YouTube Launches Singapore Site". Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- ^ YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- ^ Google Launches YouTube Uganda Archived January 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- ^ Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today Archived January 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- ^ Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Google Launches Hungarian YouTube March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- ^ YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- ^ Bindu Suresh Rai (April 2, 2012). "UAE version of YouTube launched". Emirates 247. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- ^ "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- ^ "Google launches YouTube in Ghana" Archived June 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal",
^  itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live". July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- ^ Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). "YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)" (in Ukrainian). Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog.
- ^ "YouTube lanceres i Danmark". Denmark: iProspect. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- ^ Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). "YouTube Launches in the Nordics". Nordic: KLOK. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- ^ "YouTube Launched in Norway". Norway: TONO. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- ^ "YouTube goes Swiss". Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- ^ "YouTube.at since Thursday online". Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- ^ "Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână". Romania: ZF.ro. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- ^ "Google lança versão lusa do YouTube". Portugal: Luso Noticias. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- ^ tš (May 21, 2013). "Slováci už môžu oficiálne zarábať na tvorbe videí pre YouTube" (in Slovak). Vat Pravda. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- ^ a b c d e Nick Rego (September 16, 2013). "YouTube expands monetization and partnership in GCC". tbreak Media. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- ^ Ивелина Атанасова (March 18, 2014). "YouTube рекламата става достъпна и за България" (in Bulgarian). New Trend. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- ^ "Oglašavanje na video platformi YouTube od sad dostupno i u Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Lider. March 19, 2014. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- ^ Oden, Siiri (March 19, 2014). "Youtube reklaamid – uued võimalused nüüd ka Eestis!" (in Estonian). Meedium. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- ^ Marta (March 18, 2014). "Tagad reklāmas iespējas Youtube kanālā iespējams izmantot arī Latvijā" (in Latvian). Marketing. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- ^ STA (March 18, 2014). "Na Youtube prihajajo tudi slovenski video oglasi" (in Slovenian). Dnevnik. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- ^ Pornwasin, Asina (April 3, 2014). "YouTube introduces homepage especially". The Nation. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- ^ a b c d Hall, Stephen (October 12, 2015). "YouTube continues global expansion w/ versions of its site in 7 new locales". 9to5 Google. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- ^ a b "YouTube launches Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka-specific homepages". The Himalayan Times. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- ^ "YouTube launches country-specific homepage for Pakistan". The Express Tribune. January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- ^ "Learn More: Video not available in my country". google.com. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- ^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- ^ Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). "Turks censor YouTube censorship". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- ^ Kerr, Dara (October 2, 2012). "YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). "Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Now YouTube stops the music in Germany". The Guardian. London. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- ^ Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- ^ "Updates from VidCon: more users, more products, more shows and much more". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Hoffberger, Chase (December 21, 2012). "YouTube strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views". The Daily Dot. Complex Media, Inc. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- ^ Sabbagh, Dan (December 28, 2012). "Two billion YouTube music video views disappear ... or just migrate?". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- ^ Haran, Brady (June 22, 2012). Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?. Numberphile. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2018 – via YouTube.
- ^ Snyder, Benjamin (August 6, 2015). "YouTube Finally Fixed This Annoying Feature". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Abbreviated public-facing subscriber counts". YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog. 2019.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (March 30, 2021). "YouTube Launches Test to Hide Video 'Dislike' Counts". Variety. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube tests hiding dislike counts on videos". TechCrunch. March 30, 2021. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube to hide dislike counts for all videos on the platform: Here's all you need to know". MSN. November 11, 2021. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
- ^ Marsden, Rhodri (August 12, 2009). "Why did my YouTube account get closed down?". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- ^ Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- ^ "Is YouTube's three-strike rule fair to users?". BBC News. London. May 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- ^ "Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn". BBC News. March 13, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- ^ "Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google's YouTube". CNNMoney.com. July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- ^ "Premier League to take action against YouTube". The Daily Telegraph. May 5, 2007. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Egelko, Bob (August 20, 2008). "Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- ^ Finley, Klint (November 19, 2015). "Google Pledges to Help Fight Bogus YouTube Copyright Claims—for a Few". Wired. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Ohio Northern District Court (July 18, 2013). "Court Docket". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- ^ District Judge James G. Carr (June 6, 2011). "Order". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. United States District Court, N.D. Ohio, Western Division. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- ^ "YouTube loses court battle over music clips". BBC News. London. April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube's seven-year stand-off ends". BBC News. London. November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- ^ "YouTube's Deal With Universal Blocks DMCA Counter Notices". TorrentFreak. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- ^ "Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube's contractual obligations". Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- ^ Aswad, Jem (December 19, 2017). "YouTube Strikes New Deals With Universal and Sony Music". Variety. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ a b Alexander, Julia (May 24, 2019). "YouTubers and record labels are fighting, and record labels keep winning". The Verge. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ Delaney, Kevin J. (June 12, 2007). "YouTube to Test Software To Ease Licensing Fights". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ YouTube Advertisers (February 4, 2008), Video Identification, retrieved August 29, 2018[dead YouTube link]
- ^ a b King, David (December 2, 2010). "Content ID turns three". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Content ID". YouTube. September 28, 2010. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- ^ a b More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- ^ Von Lohmann, Fred (April 23, 2009). "Testing YouTube's Audio Content ID System". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ Von Lohmann, Fred (February 3, 2009). "YouTube's January Fair Use Massacre". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ Hernandez, Patricia (April 28, 2016). "YouTube's Content ID System Gets One Much-Needed Fix". Kotaku. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ "Remove Content ID claimed songs from my videos – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- ^ Siegel, Joshua; Mayle, Doug (December 9, 2010). "Up, Up and Away – Long videos for more users". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ a b c "YouTube Community Guidelines". YouTube. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ a b Alexander, Julia (May 10, 2018). "The Yellow $: a comprehensive history of demonetization and YouTube's war with creators". Polygon. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- ^ Wong, Julia Carrie; Levin, Sam (January 25, 2019). "YouTube vows to recommend fewer conspiracy theory videos". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- ^ Orphanides, K. G. (March 23, 2018). "Children's YouTube is still churning out blood, suicide and cannibalism". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- ^ Orphanides, K. G. (February 20, 2019). "On YouTube, a network of paedophiles is hiding in plain sight". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- ^ Kimball, Whitney (September 22, 2020). "Content Moderator Exposed to Child Assault and Animal Torture Sues YouTube". Gizmodo. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- ^ Vincent, James (September 22, 2020). "Former YouTube content moderator sues the company after developing symptoms of PTSD". The Verge. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- ^ Elias, Jennifer (September 22, 2020). "Former YouTube content moderator describes horrors of the job in new lawsuit". CNBC. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- ^ Alba, Davey (February 3, 2020). "YouTube Says It Will Ban Misleading Election-Related Content". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- ^ "Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult". icLiverpool. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- ^ Kirkup, James; Martin, Nicole (July 31, 2008). "YouTube attacked by MPs over sex and violence footage". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner". Fox News. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- ^ F. Burns, John; Helft, Miguel (November 4, 2010). "YouTube Withdraws Cleric's Videos". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Bennett, Brian (December 12, 2010). "YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- ^ Newton, Casey (March 13, 2018). "YouTube will add information from Wikipedia to videos about conspiracies". The Verge. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
- ^ Bergen, Mark (April 15, 2019). "YouTube Flags Notre-Dame Fire as 9/11 Conspiracy, Says System Made 'Wrong Call'". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
- ^ Bensinger, Greg; Albergotti, Reed (August 14, 2019). "YouTube discriminates against LGBT content by unfairly culling it, suit alleges". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ a b c Nicas, Jack (February 7, 2018). "How YouTube Drives People to the Internet's Darkest Corners". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ "As Germans Seek News, YouTube Delivers Far-Right Tirades". Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- ^ a b c Ingram, Matthew. "YouTube's secret life as an engine for right-wing radicalization". Columbia Journalism Review. No. September 19, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- ^ Lewis, Rebecca (September 2018). "Alternative Influence: Broadcasting the Reactionary Right on YouTube" (PDF). datasociety.net. Data and Society. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- ^ "YouTube wants the news audience, but not the responsibility". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
- ^ Nicas, Jack (October 6, 2017). "YouTube Tweaks Search Results as Las Vegas Conspiracy Theories Rise to Top". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ "Here's How YouTube Is Spreading Conspiracy Theories About The Vegas Shooting". BuzzFeed. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ "The Big Tech Platforms Still Suck During Breaking News". BuzzFeed. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Is Spreading Conspiracy Theories about Anthony Bourdain's Death". BuzzFeed. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ a b "Google apologises as M&S pulls ads". BBC News. March 20, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ Lewis, Paul (February 2, 2018). "'Fiction is outperforming reality': how YouTube's algorithm distorts truth". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ Levin, Sam (April 23, 2018). "YouTube under fire for censoring video exposing conspiracy theorist Alex Jones". The Guardian. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ Salinas, Sara (August 6, 2018). "YouTube removes Alex Jones' page, following bans from Apple and Facebook." CNBC. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- ^ "Opinion | YouTube, the Great Radicalizer". Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ "Parkland shooting 'crisis actor' videos lead users to a 'conspiracy ecosystem' on YouTube, new research shows". Washington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
- ^ Weill, Kelly (January 25, 2019). "YouTube Tweaks Algorithm to Fight 9/11 Truthers, Flat Earthers, Miracle Cures". Retrieved January 29, 2019.
- ^ Bergen, Mark (April 2, 2019). "YouTube Executives Ignored Warnings, Letting Toxic Videos Run Rampant". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
- ^ "The Four Rs of Responsibility, Part 2: Raising authoritative content and reducing borderline content and harmful misinformation". Official YouTube Blog. YouTube. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
- ^ Allgaier, Joachim (July 25, 2019). "Science and Environmental Communication on YouTube: Strategically Distorted Communications in Online Videos on Climate Change and Climate Engineering". Frontiers in Communication. 4. doi:10.3389/fcomm.2019.00036. ISSN 2297-900X.
- ^ Carmichael, Flora; News, Juliana Gragnani Beyond Fake; Monitoring, B.B.C. (September 12, 2019). "How YouTube makes money from fake cancer cure videos". BBC News. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
|last2=has generic name (help)
- ^ Fisher, Max; Taub, Amanda (August 11, 2019). "How YouTube Radicalized Brazil". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
- ^ Tuquero, Loreben (September 22, 2021). "Red flag for 2022: Political lies go unchecked on YouTube showbiz channels". Rappler. Manila, Philippines: Rappler Inc. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
- ^ a b "Our ongoing work to tackle hate". YouTube. June 5, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Robertson, Adi (March 15, 2019). "Questions about policing online hate are much bigger than Facebook and YouTube". The Verge. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Timberg, Craig; Harwell, Drew; Shaban, Hamza; Ba Tran, Andrew; Fung, Brian (March 15, 2020). "The New Zealand shooting shows how YouTube and Facebook spread hate and violent images – yet again". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Roose, Kevin (March 29, 2019). "YouTube's Product Chief on Online Radicalization and Algorithmic Rabbit Holes". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Browne, Ryan (May 15, 2019). "New Zealand and France unveil plans to tackle online extremism without the US on board". CNBC. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Willsher, Kim (May 15, 2019). "Leaders and tech firms pledge to tackle extremist violence online". The Guardian. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Newton, Casey (June 5, 2019). "YouTube just banned supremacist content, and thousands of channels are about to be removed". The Verge. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (June 29, 2020). "YouTube bans Stefan Molyneux, David Duke, Richard Spencer, and more for hate speech". The Verge. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- ^ a b Pannett, Rachel (January 29, 2021). "Russia threatens to block YouTube after German channels are deleted over coronavirus misinformation". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- ^ a b Alba, Davey (September 29, 2021). "YouTube bans all anti-vaccine misinformation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- ^ Peters, Jay (October 7, 2021). "Google and YouTube will cut off ad money for climate change deniers". The Verge. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
- ^ Elias, Jennifer (July 21, 2022). "YouTube says it will crack down on abortion misinformation and remove videos with false claims". CNBC. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
- ^ Luscombe, Belinda (May 18, 2017). "The YouTube Parents Who are Turning Family Moments into Big Bucks". Time. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (June 21, 2019). "YouTube can't remove kid videos without tearing a hole in the entire creator ecosystem". The Verge. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (April 26, 2017). "The saga of a YouTube family who pulled disturbing pranks on their own kids". The Washington Post.
- ^ Cresci, Elena (May 7, 2017). "Mean stream: how YouTube prank channel DaddyOFive enraged the internet". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- ^ Dunphy, Rachel (April 28, 2017). "The Abusive 'Pranks' of YouTube Family Vloggers". Select All. New York Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- ^ Gajanan, Mahita (May 3, 2017). "YouTube Star DaddyOFive Loses Custody of 2 Children Shown in 'Prank' Videos". Time. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- ^ Levenson, Eric; Alonso, Mel (March 20, 2019). "A mom on a popular YouTube show is accused of pepper-spraying her kids when they flubbed their lines". CNN.
- ^ Ben Popper, Adults dressed as superheroes is YouTube's new, strange, and massively popular genre, The Verge, February 4, 2017
- ^ "Report: Thousands of videos mimicking popular cartoons on YouTube Kids contain inappropriate content". NEWS10 ABC. March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ Sapna Maheshwari, On YouTube Kids, Startling Videos Slip Past Filters, The New York Times, November 4, 2017
- ^ a b Dani Di Placido, YouTube's "Elsagate" Illuminates The Unintended Horrors Of The Digital Age, Forbes, November 28, 2017
- ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube Terminates Toy Freaks Channel Amid Broader Crackdown on Disturbing Kids' Content, Variety, November 17, 2017
- ^ Popper, Ben (November 9, 2017). "YouTube says it will crack down on bizarre videos targeting children". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017.
In August of this year, YouTube announced that it would no longer allow creators to monetize videos which "made inappropriate use of family-friendly characters." Today it's taking another step to try to police this genre.
- ^ Sarah Templeton, Disturbing 'ElsaGate', 'Toy Freaks' videos removed from YouTube after abuse allegations, Newshub, November 22, 2017
- ^ YouTube to crack down on videos showing child endangerment, ABC News, November 22, 2017
- ^ Charlie Warzel, YouTube Is Addressing Its Massive Child Exploitation Problem BuzzFeed, November 22, 2017
- ^ Bridge, Mark; Mostrous, Alexi (November 18, 2017). "Child abuse on YouTube". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- ^ a b c Koh, Yoree; Morris, Betsy (April 11, 2019). "Kids Love These YouTube Channels. Who Creates Them Is a Mystery". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ Martineau, Paris. "YouTube Has Kid Troubles Because Kids Are a Core Audience". Wired. Archived from the original on August 11, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ Graham, Jefferson (June 22, 2019). "Why YouTube's kid issues are so serious". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ Bergan, Mark; Shaw, Lucas (February 10, 2020). "YouTube's Secretive Top Kids Channel Expands Into Merchandise". Bloomberg News. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- ^ a b Haskins, Caroline (March 19, 2019). "YouTubers Are Fighting Algorithms to Make Good Content for Kids". Vice. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ Palladino, Valentina (January 16, 2019). "YouTube updates policies to explicitly ban dangerous pranks, challenges". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- ^ YouTube videos of children are plagued by sexual comments, The Verge, November 15, 2017
- ^ a b Mostrous, Alexi; Bridge, Mark; Gibbons, Katie (November 24, 2017). "YouTube adverts fund paedophile habits". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- ^ Tait, Amelia (April 24, 2016). "Why YouTube mums are taking their kids offline". New Statesman. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube Faces Advertiser Boycott Over Videos With Kids That Attracted Sexual Predators, Variety, November 25, 2017
- ^ a b Bridge, Harry Shukman, Mark (December 10, 2018). "Paedophiles grooming children live on YouTube". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- ^ a b Bergen, Mark; de Vynck, Gerrit; Palmeri, Christopher (February 20, 2019). "Nestle, Disney Pull YouTube Ads, Joining Furor Over Child Videos". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (February 21, 2019). "YouTube terminates more than 400 channels following child exploitation controversy". The Verge. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- ^ Brodkin, Jon (February 21, 2019). "YouTube loses advertisers over "wormhole into pedophilia ring"". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- ^ Haselton, Todd; Salinas, Sara (February 21, 2019). "As fallout over pedophilia content on YouTube continues, AT&T pulls all advertisements". CNBC. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- ^ Ingraham, Nathan (February 22, 2019). "YouTube is proactively blocking ads on videos prone to predatory comments". Engadget. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- ^ Fox, Chris (February 28, 2019). "YouTube bans comments on all videos of kids". Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (February 28, 2019). "YouTube is disabling comments on almost all videos featuring children". The Verge. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- ^ Gerken, Tom (February 19, 2019). "YouTube backtracks after Pokemon 'child abuse' ban". BBC News. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- ^ Alexander, Julia (February 28, 2019). "Trolls are lying about child porn to try to get YouTube channels taken down". The Verge. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- ^ Fisher, Max; Taub, Amanda (June 3, 2019). "On YouTube's Digital Playground, an Open Gate for Pedophiles". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- ^ Ingraham, Nathan (June 6, 2019). "A Senator wants to stop YouTube from recommending videos featuring minors". Engadget. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- ^ Copeland, Rob (June 19, 2019). "YouTube, Under Fire, Considers Major Changes to Kids' Content". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (March 31, 2008). "YouTube RickRolls Users". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Wortham, Jenna (April 1, 2008). "YouTube 'Rickrolls' Everyone". Wired. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Bas van den Beld (April 1, 2009). "April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down". searchcowboys.com. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ Pichette, Patrick (March 31, 2010). "TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Richmond, Shane (April 1, 2011). "YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Carbone, Nick (April 1, 2012). "April Fools' Day 2012: The Best Pranks from Around the Web". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Quan, Kristene (April 1, 2013). "WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Murphy, Samantha (March 31, 2013). "YouTube Says It's Shutting Down in April Fools' Day Prank". Mashable. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
- ^ Kleinman, Alexis (April 1, 2014). "YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets in April Fools' Day Video". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- ^ Alba, Alejandro (April 1, 2015). "17 April Fools' pranks from tech brands, tech giants today". NY Daily News. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- ^ Sini, Rozina (April 1, 2016). "Snoopavision and other April Fools jokes going viral". BBC News. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ Dave, Paresh (February 1, 2018). "YouTube's emerging markets-focused app expands to 130 countries". Reuters. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Go is shutting down in August". TechCrunch. May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- ^ Byford, Sam (September 27, 2016). "YouTube Go is a new app for offline viewing and sharing". The Verge. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ Singh, Manish (February 9, 2017). "YouTube Go is finally here, kind of". Mashable. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ Ho, Victoria (November 30, 2017). "Data-friendly YouTube Go beta launches in Southeast Asia, Africa". Mashable. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- ^ Perez, Sarah. "Google's data-friendly app YouTube Go expands to over 130 countries, now supports higher quality videos". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- ^ "Google's 'offline first' YouTube Go app launches in 130 new markets, but not the U.S." VentureBeat. February 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube is now showing ad-supported Hollywood movies". Ad Age. November 16, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- ^ "Lyor Cohen Named YouTube's Global Head of Music". Billboard. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- ^ "How YouTube Is Playing the Peacemaker With Musicians". Fortune. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- ^ "Inside YouTube's New Subscription Music Streaming Service". Billboard. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- ^ Snapes, Laura; Sweney, Mark (May 17, 2018). "YouTube to launch new music streaming service". The Guardian. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Premium". YouTube.
- ^ Trew, James (November 12, 2014). "YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here's what you need to know". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Newton, Casey (November 12, 2014). "YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (November 12, 2014). "YouTube Launches 'Music Key' Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs". Variety. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (October 21, 2015). "YouTube Red Unveiled: Ad-Free Streaming Service Priced Same as Netflix". Variety. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Amadeo, Ron (October 21, 2015). ""YouTube Red" offers premium YouTube for $9.99 a month, $12.99 for iOS users". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Popper, Ben (October 21, 2015). "A first look at the ad-free YouTube Red subscription service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Roberts, Hannah (November 3, 2016). "YouTube's ad-free paid subscription service looks like it is struggling to take off". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube Red originals have racked up nearly 250 million views". The Verge. June 22, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube's TikTok rival to be tested in India". BBC News. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube launches its TikTok rival, YouTube Shorts, initially in India". TechCrunch. September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- ^ Amadeo, Ron (March 1, 2021). "YouTube's TikTok clone, "YouTube Shorts," is live in the US". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- ^ "YouTube Shorts launches in India after Delhi TikTok ban". The Guardian. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube's TikTok competitor YouTube Shorts is rolling out globally". The Verge. July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
- ^ Gilliland, Nikki (December 5, 2018). "What is YouTube Stories and will it catch on?". EConsultancy. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- ^ "Express yourself with Stories". Creator Academy. YouTube. November 25, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- ^ "Hidden features of Facebook, WhatsApp, Youtube and more". Gadgets Now.
- ^ "YouTube's Test Tube: What Is It?". Golden Grid System. January 8, 2020.
- ^ "Google Testing Comment Search On YouTube". Search Engine Land. October 16, 2009.
- ^ "Slow YouTube? Try Feather, Made for India". Gtricks. December 7, 2009.
- ^ "YouTube TV launches today. It has some cool features and some big drawbacks". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- ^ Warren, Christina (April 5, 2017). "YouTube Is Officially in the Live TV Game Now". Gizmodo. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- ^ Lee, Dave (March 1, 2017). "YouTube takes on cable with new TV service". BBC. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- ^ Huddleston, Tom Jr (March 1, 2017). "Meet YouTube TV: Google's Live TV Subscription Service". Fortune. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- ^ a b Bruno, Antony (February 25, 2007). "YouTube stars don't always welcome record deals". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014.
- ^ a b Tufnell, Nicholas (November 27, 2013). "The rise and fall of YouTube's celebrity pioneers". Wired UK. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014.
- ^ Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012.
- ^ Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 7, 2022. • Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015 / 1. PewDiePie: $12 million". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021.
- ^ "Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube". BBC News. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on January 15, 2014.
- ^ Thayer, Katheryn (October 29, 2013). "The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013.
- ^ "2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title)". Next Big Sound. January 2014. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%.
- ^ Billboard staff (February 20, 2013). "Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014.
- ^ a b c d Anderson, Chris (July 2010). "How web video powers global innovation". TED. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation."
- ^ Noer, Michael (November 2, 2012). "One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 4, 2013.
- ^ YouTube.com (award profile), "Winner 2008", peabodyawards.com, May 2009. (Archived January 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine from the original on January 14, 2016).
- ^ Poniewozik, James (April 1, 2009). "Nonprofit Press Release Theater: Peabody Awards Announced". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Tsukayama, Haley (April 20, 2012). "In online video, minorities find an audience". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
- ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
- ^ Q. Seelye, Katharine (June 13, 2007). "New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Howard, Philip N. (February 23, 2011). "The Arab Spring's Cascading Effects". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- ^ Wong, Scott (March 22, 2012). "Joseph Kony captures Congress' attention". Politico. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- ^ a b c Cohen, Joshua (March 2, 2014). "Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors on How To Reach Online Audiences". Tubefilter. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014.
- ^ Jenkins, Brad L. (March 6, 2014). "YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House". whitehouse.gov. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017 – via National Archives.
- ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube Video Creation – A Shared Process". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
- ^ Reston, Maeve (December 12, 2013). "Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.
- ^ McMorris-Santoro, Evan (March 2, 2014). "Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
- ^ "U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video". CNN. September 14, 2012. Archived from the original on November 16, 2013.
- ^ Heffernan, Virginia (August 27, 2006). "Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Herrman, John (August 3, 2017). "For the New Far Right, YouTube Has Become the New Talk Radio". The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017.
- ^ "Continuing our work to improve recommendations on YouTube". YouTube.GoogleBlog.com. January 25, 2019. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019.
- ^ Tufekci, Zeynep (March 10, 2018). "YouTube, the Great Radicalizer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019.
- ^ Nicas, Jack (November 3, 2020). "YouTube Cut Down Misinformation. Then It Boosted Fox News / To battle false information, YouTube cut its recommendations to fringe channels and instead promoted major networks, especially Fox News". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2020.
- ^ Munger, Kevin; Phillips, Joseph (October 21, 2020). "Right-Wing YouTube: A Supply and Demand Perspective". The International Journal of Press/Politics. 27 (1): 186–219. doi:10.1177/1940161220964767. ISSN 1940-1612. S2CID 226339609.
- Chen, Annie Y.; Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason; Robertson, Ronald E.; Wilson, Christo (April 22, 2022). "Subscriptions and external links help drive resentful users to alternative and extremist YouTube videos". arXiv:2204.10921 [cs.SI].
- Wolfe, Liz (April 26, 2022). "YouTube Algorithms Don't Turn Unsuspecting Masses Into Extremists, New Study Suggests / A new study casts doubt on the most prominent theories about extremism-by-algorithm". Reason. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022.
- ^ Chu, Jon M. (February 2010). "The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves". TED. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
- ^ a b Nichols, Michelle (reporter) (April 14, 2009). Simao, Paul (ed.). "YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014.
- ^ Levs, Josh (interviewer) (March 6, 2010). "CNN Newsroom". CNN. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010.
|first=has generic name (help) Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives).
- ^ Smart, Richard (May 11, 2011). "Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You". The Tokyo Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011.
- ^ Hartlaub, Peter (October 8, 2010). "Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
- ^ "It Gets Better". WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014.
- ^ "In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion". CTV News. October 14, 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013.
- ^ Waterson, Jim (May 28, 2018). "YouTube deletes 30 music videos after Met link with gang violence". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 21, 2021.
- ^ Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". CNN. Archived from the original on February 12, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^ Hardy, Quentin; Hessel, Evan (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ^ a b c Winkler, Rolfe (December 11, 2013). "YouTube Growing Faster Than Thought, Report Says". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- ^ "YouTube's ad revenue estimated at $5.6 billion". YAHOO. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- ^ McAllister, Neil (May 9, 2013). "YouTube launches subscriptions with 53 paid channels". The Register. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- ^ Statt, Nick (February 3, 2020). "YouTube is a $15 billion-a-year business, Google reveals for the first time". The Verge. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- ^ "Alphabet Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2019 Results" (PDF) (Press release). Alphabet Inc. February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- ^ Fingas, Jon (February 3, 2020). "YouTube Premium and Music have 20 million subscribers". Engadget. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- ^ Alphabet Inc. (January 26, 2021). "Alphabet Inc. Form 10-K (2020)". www.sec.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
- ^ [email protected] "Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy". Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- ^ Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). "BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Stone, Brad; Barnes, Brooks (November 9, 2008). "MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ D. Kramer, Staci (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- ^ Helft, Miguel (January 20, 2010). "YouTube Takes a Small Step into the Film Rental Market". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- ^ Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Google Ad Crisis Spreads as Biggest Marketers Halt Spending". Bloomberg.com. March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube: UK government suspends ads amid extremism concerns". BBC News. March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Collins, Ben (April 4, 2017). "A YouTube Star, Reddit Detectives, and the Alt-Right Call Out a Fake News Story. Turns Out It Was Real". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- ^ "How one little screenshot drove YouTube to the brink". Mashable. April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- ^ "YouTube will no longer allow creators to make money until they reach 10,000 views". The Verge. Vox Media. April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- ^ Biggs, John (May 4, 2007). "YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Carmody, Tim (March 4, 2013). "It's not TV, it's the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "The biggest stars on YouTube make huge incomes ... yet they can't keep the vast majority of it". Business Insider. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- ^ Kaufman, Leslie (February 1, 2014). "Chasing Their Star, on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Robertson, Adi (September 1, 2016). "Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?". The Verge. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- ^ "After Child Video Scandal, YouTube Says Ad-Friendly Videos Can Be Demonetized For Inappropriate Comments". Tubefilter. February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- ^ McCue, TJ. "Google's YouTube Introduces Paid Content Subscriptions". Forbes. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ "Introduction to paid content – YouTube Help". support.google.com. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ a b "Additional Changes to the YouTube Partner Program (YPP) to Better Protect Creators". YouTube. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
- ^ Levin, Sam (January 18, 2018). "YouTube's small creators pay price of policy changes after Logan Paul scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- ^ "YouTube Creator Rewards". YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- ^ What is the Gold Play Button REALLY made of?!?. JerryRigEverything. December 3, 2016. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 27, 2022 – via YouTube.
- ^ "YouTube Sends PewDiePie Custom Ruby Play Button To Commemorate 50 Million Subscribers". Tubefilter. December 19, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Spangler, Todd (January 14, 2019). "YouTube Explains Which Profanities and 'Inappropriate Language' Are Not OK for Ad-Supported Videos". Variety. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- ^ Robertson, Adi (September 1, 2016). "Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Guynn, Jessica (September 2, 2016). "YouTubers protest 'advertiser friendly' policy". USA Today. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Mulkerin, Tim (September 1, 2016). "A bunch of famous YouTubers are furious at YouTube right now – here's why". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ E. Solsman, Joan (September 1, 2016). "Pause the #YouTubeIsOverParty: YouTube isn't pulling more ads from stars' videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Beschizza, Rob (October 2, 2019). "YouTube demonetizing videos where LGBTQ keywords are said". Boing Boing. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- ^ "YouTube announces changes in its terms of services". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- ^ Graham, Megan (November 19, 2020). "YouTube will put ads on non-partner videos but won't pay the creators". CNBC. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- ^ Garett Sloane, YouTube Ad Revenue, disclosed by Google for the first time, topped $15 billion in 2019, Ad Age (February 3, 2020).
- ^ Miller, Claire Cain (September 2, 2010). "YouTube Ads Turn Videos into Revenue". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ MacDonald, Keza (May 16, 2013). "Nintendo enforces copyright on YouTube Let's Plays". IGN. j2 Global. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Tassi, Paul (February 6, 2015). "Nintendo Updates Their Bad YouTube Policies By Making Them Worse". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Johnson, Eric (February 4, 2015). "Nintendo Wants YouTubers to Pretend Its Competitors' Games Don't Exist". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ Hernandez, Patricia (January 29, 2015). "Nintendo's YouTube Plan Is Already Being Panned By YouTubers [Update]". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Plunkett, Luke (November 28, 2018). "Nintendo's Controversial Creators Program Is Shutting Down". Kotaku. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- ^ Kent, Emma (November 29, 2018). "Nintendo scraps controversial Creators Program, making life easier for YouTubers". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- ^ a b c "YouTube Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- ^ "The disturbing YouTube videos that are tricking children". BBC News. March 27, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Shu, Catherine (March 20, 2017). "YouTube responds to complaints that its Restricted Mode censors LGBT videos". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ David Meerman Scott. "Facebook and YouTube blocked by paranoid corporations at their own peril". Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Hannaford, Kat (March 17, 2011). "US Military Bans YouTube, Amazon and 11 Other Websites to Free Up Bandwidth for Japan Crisis". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ Strom, Stephanie (March 9, 2012). "YouTube Finds a Way Off Schools' Banned List". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
- ^ "Turkmenistan". Reporters Without Borders. March 11, 2011.
- ^ Syundyukova, Nazerke (October 9, 2018). "Uzbekistan has blocked YouTube social network". The Qazaq Times. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- ^ "Маҳаллий ОАВ: Ўзбекистонда Facebook ва YouTube яна ўчириб қўйилди" [Local Media: YouTube and Facebook once again blocked in Uzbekistan]. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Uzbek Service (in Uzbek). January 16, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- ^ Vincent, James (May 26, 2020). "YouTube is deleting comments with two phrases that insult China's Communist Party". The Verge.
- ^ "Thailand Bans YouTube". The New York Times. April 5, 2007.
- ^ "YouTube site 'blocked' in Morocco". BBC News. May 29, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- ^ "YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom". Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (November 28, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ "Turkey goes into battle with Google". BBC News. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
- ^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- ^ Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- ^ "Turkey report" Archived September 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012.
- ^ "Top Sites in Turkey". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- ^ B. Kelley, Michael (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Blocked in Turkey Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ^ "Turkey moves to block YouTube access after 'audio leak'". BBC News. BBC. March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- ^ Wagstaff, Keith (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Banned in Turkey". NBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- ^ "Pakistan blocks YouTube website". BBC. February 24, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan lifts YouTube ban". ABC News (Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube". BBC. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban". Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ "Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown". BBC News. May 20, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ^ "YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012
- ^ "Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010
- ^ Pakistan ban on YouTube stays even after one year Archived May 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- ^ "Pakistan unblocks access to YouTube". BBC News. January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- ^ "Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- ^ "Libya" Archived September 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
- ^ "Afghanistan to unblock YouTube – Afghanistan Times" Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, December 1, 2012.
- ^ "Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film" Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012.
- ^ "YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video", The Independent (AP), September 18, 2012.
- ^ Tsukayama, Haley (September 17, 2012). "YouTube blocked in Pakistan". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- ^ Devnath, Arun (September 18, 2012). "Pakistan, Bangladesh Block YouTube Amid Islam Film Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- ^ "Russian court bans anti-Islam film". The News. September 29, 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
- ^ Willon, Phil; Keegan, Rebecca (September 12, 2012). "'Innocence of Muslims': Mystery shrouds film's California origins". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- ^ "YouTube restricts video access over Libyan violence". CNN. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- ^ "Russia threatens YouTube ban for deleting RT channels". BBC News. September 29, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- ^ "YouTube to block channels linked to Russia's RT and Sputnik across Europe". Reuters. March 1, 2022. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- Bergen, Mark (2022). Like, Comment, Subscribe: Inside YouTube's Chaotic Rise to World Dominance. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780593296349. OCLC 1289250597.* Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube". Business Insider. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Haran, Brady; Hamilton, Ted. "Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?". Numberphile. Brady Haran. Archived from the original on December 26, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Kelsey, Todd (2010). Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6.
- Lacy, Sarah (2008). The Stories of Facebook, YouTube and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0. Richmond: Crimson. ISBN 978-1-85458-453-3.
- Walker, Rob (June 28, 2012). "On YouTube, Amateur Is the New Pro". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Official website
- Copyright issues
- Content ID
- Copyright strike
- Fantastic Adventures scandal
- Garcia v. Google, Inc.
- Kohistan video case
- Korean backdoor advertisement controversy
- Lenz v. Universal Music Corp.
- Reactions to Innocence of Muslims
- Slovenian government incident
- Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.